Do subatomic particles really exist?
answer from Kirsten Hacker:
Kirsten Hacker, PhD Accelerator Physics, University of Hamburg (2010) Answered May 10, 2017
When you break apart a clock, you see all of the pieces that come out and conclude that they were the parts of the clock.
When you break apart a nucleus and see a bunch of quark-antiquark pairs, many people would conclude that a nucleus is made up of quarks.
But if you also know that subatomic particles like quarks appear and disappear out of thin air and magically transform into other types of particles and that a quark has never been observed in isolation (it always comes in a matter-antimatter pair), I’m not sure that it makes sense to conclude that a nucleus is made up of quarks, just because it is possible to put together a model of the nucleus using quarks. That is a logical leap which isn’t really valid.
You could also make a model of the nucleus using protons and electrons by creating an electrostatically stable geometric arrangement. We have never seen a quark in a nucleus or had applications which require the notion of a quark in a nucleus. As far as I can tell, the only thing we can say about quarks with 100% certainty is that when you slam electrons together or protons together, you get quark-antiquark pairs and a lot of other junk with no engineering application since its discovery 50 years ago.
Anything else which has been claimed about how the nucleus is structured or how the beginning of time played out is pure, unscientific speculation which has been sold to the public like a CERN-centric religion.
——————————————————————————————————– Since it is impossible to look directly inside a proton or an electron, all explanations are theories based on some observations. It seems that all ‘particles’ are made of something else but we are not sure.
The theory of the last sub quanta tries to give a logical explanation. What is interesting with that theory is that we do not need to invent magical something to explain what is observed in real life.
We know that a billiard ball hitting another one will imparts a new direction and a new speed. We name speed and direction as velocity, having both a direction and a speed. We know also
that when the two balls touches, they touch only at the level of the electrons of the atoms of the balls. The nucleus of one ball do not touch the nucleus of the other one.
Let us look at the stationary ball at the moment of the collision. The electrons of all its atoms are already moving at about one third the speed of light. It looks as if the ball was immobile on the pool table. But the table is moving in space as the earth spins and moves around the sun. There are no objects in universe that are not moving. Everything is always in motion. Some seems to be immobile compare to us if all is moving together in the same direction and same speed.
What is the nuclei doing in the ball ? Since we are not sure what makes the nuclei, it is really impossible to make a complete final answer.
But we know that a nucleus can sometimes break and the parts are leaving in many directions. Some of what is leaving the nucleus is a kind of light at high frequency. It is called a gamma ray. In a lab in the states, (1) the students put some metal plates in front of the gamma rays and observe that electrons and positrons are produced. Where do they come from? Maybe they were extracted from the plate itself but it seem improbable because there was no free positrons in the plate. It really seems that the ray of light called gamma ray was able to be transformed into the electron positron pair. These are not moving at speed of light but the parts of the gamma ray was moving at speed of light just before it was organized as an electron positron pair. Maybe the parts of light are still moving at speed of light in the electron and in the positron but they are now interacting with one another and with what is bombarding the pair from space itself. This will be explained below.
The electron now produced will remain an electron for a long time unless it meets a positron and is reverted to another gamma ray. The stable electron thus seems to be made of the same stuff as the gamma ray. We call this stuff the ultimate sub quantas.
Possibility: the electron seems to be a stable system. Even if it receives a lot of ultimate last sub quanta that are travelling in space in all directions, the electron seems to be able to integrate these incoming quantas and seems to emit in average the same quantity so it remains the same as before.
That could explain why in a vacuum tube where electrons are emitted and only some of them are forced to pass through a small slit, they hit the metal plate. The next picture is a real experiment we have done many times. When the electron beam hits the metal plate, they give a blue light.
https://www.google.ca/search?biw=1164&bih=527&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=olpfXJoZi8j9Bty1gzg&q =cthode+tube&oq=cthode+tube&gs_l=img.3…1520052.1522238..1523558…0.0..0.81.410.6…… 0….1..gws-wiz-img…….0j0i7i30j0i7i10i30j0i8i30.KUIf0iFA7P4#imgrc=yr9BQbgGtZ2HZM:
In the above drawing, we see that the moving electrons ( in green ) going from left to right are deviated in an upward direction when a charged metal plate with a surplus of electrons is placed under the beam of moving electrons. That is evidence that something is leaving the charged metal plate; the plate is sending something real that passes through the glass tube and interfere with the moving electrons. This is probably the quantas emitted by the metal plate.
Many experiments were done with a sensitive detector located far from a plastic ruler containing a surplus of electrons because it was rubbed many times on cloth. Then a neutral object was move between the detector and the ruler, the sensor stops sensing the surplus of electrons. What is sent by the ruler with a surplus of electrons goes in all directions and can be stopped by a neutral object. That is a very compelling reason to believe there is really something leaving a charged object that goes in all directions.
Furthermore, when the charged object is vibrating back and forth, the sensor display the same frequency. That also suggest that at a frequency of five hundred million millions vibrations per second, yellow light would be produced. It really seems that visible light is simply many layers of these quantas emitted from a charged object vibrating at that frequency.
If light is really a pulsating emission from a charged object, then it is reasonable to thing those quantas that are emitted always go at the speed of light because they make light. That suggest an interesting conclusion: the quantas are always moving at speed of light in the electron and in the positron but they are now interacting with one another. The electron system is so complex that we do not know how this is possible.
A comparison could help to understand this complexity. When the temperature in a room is about 20 Celsius, the air molecules move at about 500 meters per second. They are always bumping on dust particles in air. That makes the dust particle move in a pattern called Brownian movement and one can see this pattern on internet.
https://www.google.ca/search?q=brownian+movement&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0a hUKEwj88Ze17K_gAhVsmeAKHV01CcIQ_AUIDigB&biw=1164&bih=527#imgrc=3rNzaF-gzgE9 eM:
In the above drawing, the red dot represents the air molecules and the blue circle would be a dust particle bombarded on each side.
Even if the molecules are going at about 500 meters per second, the air in the room stays in the room because the molecules are colliding together and changing direction all the time. In the electron, the quantas are moving at speed of light and some are leaving the electron but most of them are colliding inside the electron. When some leave the electron, they are replaced by those arriving from all direction of space because space is filled with these quantas emitted by all the stars in universe.
That explains why the electrons in the cathode ray tube are seemed to be pushed upward by the quantas coming from below. Really, the electrons are not pushed at all but are reorganized as a stable system just above the previous position. That reorganization makes us believe there was a pushing force from below because we are used to see forces acting like that in our macroscopic world. In the atomic world, it is really different.
On the atomic scale and sub atomic scale, there is no pushing or attracting forces, only a change in velocity of complex systems depending on the incoming quantas direction.
Concept of mass: this concept is used to compare the effect when objects interact. The amount of interaction is bigger if there is more mass and/or more velocity. This is represented by the known formula: force = mass x acceleration. Another formula representing mass is this: density = mass / volume or in another form, mass = density x volume. We realize that density is a comparison of how matter is organized in the object; mass is a comparison of that organization and not a special property of matter. That is why the quantas have no mass because mass arises only when the quantas are organized as a system called objects.
1. A simple electron-positron pair production experiment May 2006American Journal of Physics 74(5) DOI: 10.1119/1.2174030