In this site, I will give a summary of the discoveries to date and the new one also.
My family helps me a lot: Benoît is discussing the findings; my wife Madeleine, a nurse is helping also. My daughter Rosanne devised this WEB site and her husband Jamie is a proficient programmer who can help me a lot, even with his big family of 7 nice kids.
I am now retired after 52 years of teaching mostly physics and maths.
Je suis un professeur de sciences depuis plus de 50 ans. J’ai enseigné de la 7e année à la 12e puis à l’université d’Ottawa et enfin au collèege. J’enseigne depuis plus de 25 ans au collège Boréal, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Depuis le début, je désirais comprendre la gravité. Après beaucoup d’essai infructueux, j’ai découvert qu’un rayon de lumière peut bloquer la force de gravité. Encore beaucoup de recherche permettront de comprendre la nature de la gravité.
Mon grand gars Benoît ia fait un baccalauréat en Sciences infirmières . Il m’a beaucoup encouragé dans ma recherche. Mon épouse Madeleine est infirmière et ma grande fille Rosanne a réussi à faire ce site WEB malgré le travail avec ses 7 beaux enfants. Mon gendre Jamie Parent est programmeur et très habile avec les ordinateurs.
Louis Joseph Rancourt
Far in space, gravitational force coming from one direction is almost cancelled by gravitational force coming in opposite direction. An object in that position continues in strait line because the net force on it is zero.
Because of all its atoms, the sun blocks some of that gravitational force around itself. An object located in that space is pushed towards the sun because gravitational force coming from direction opposite to the sun is bigger now.
Gravity from space is blocked partially by the sun; gravity density is lower close to the sun and increases according to 1/distance squared.
But the sun itself is also an emitter of gravity. That means close to the sun gravitational force is bigger that in space around. That extends to a certain distance from the sun.
At a certain distance, the density of gravitational force from one side is almost equal to the density of gravitational force coming from the direction of the sun.
That makes a kind of big sphere where gravitational force is almost equal on each side on a line pointing toward the sun. That region or bubble is the gravitational well . Planets cannot go in strait line because in doing so, they enter a region where the gravitational force from outside is now bigger and they are pushed back towards the sun. When they approach the sun, the same thing happens in opposite: the gravitational force coming from the sun is now bigger and the planet is pushed away, In that manner, the planet goes around the sun and is a satellite.
Region around the sun emitting in all direction added to what is emitted from space causes a different density region.
If we add the gravitational force from the sun and from space, we have something similar to that drawing, showing the low density of gravitational force all around the sun.
The graph shows where the planets are in that ‘well‘; they are all situated in the brown rectangle, at a distance between 5.80E+07 m and 6.00E+09 m.
In order to show the gravity well, we must use the log value of the distances. The blue line is for the gravity from space that was partially blocked by the sun and the red line is the gravity emitted by the sun. It goes to almost zero at far distance.
In this graph, the sun center is at 0 on x-axis.
Xcell sheet for these calculations:
sun – planet
force in N
The mass and the speed of the planet will permit to find an equilibrium point and it becomes a satellite to the sun. Small planets are far…
The gravitational force in this graphic represents the net total force when we add opposite forces. Depending on its speed, the planet finds the distance away where the force towards the sun equals its centripetal force.
Einstein seem to have a vague idea of that gravity well and tried to explain it with his theory of space time curvature. Space is not curved but its different density will influence objects towards the sun as if it was “curved’ inward.
Following the equation (F = Gmm/dd) there is a possibility to have planets between the sun and Mercury if the speed is big enough. There is no such planet there. This is because of the gravity well described here. A planet closer to the sun would be pushed away by sun radiation of gravity.
This also explains why most comets do not fall into the sun as they should because of the pressure of the gravity emitted by the sun. It will push the comet’s tail away from the sun.
Mesure de la force de gravité par kg sur terre venant de l’espace
Dans la théorie de la gravité comme étant une poussée et non pas une attraction, cela signifie que la terre est poussée vers le soleil par la gravité venant de toutes les directions de l’espace.
Comme une partie de la gravité derrière le soleil est bloquée par le soleil, la force de gravité est plus petite dans l’axe soleil-terre. On peut calculer la force qui pousse la terre vers le soleil.
Ensuite on calcule la fraction bloquée par le soleil comparée à la gravité venant de partout de l’espace.
Pour mieux visualiser cela, on utilise deux bulles dont le rayon est la distance entre le soleil et la terre. Ce dessin en 3 dimension aide à le comprendre. La terre est en bleu dans la bulle de gauche, le soleil est en rouge dans la bulle de droite.
Le rayon est de 1.50 x10+11 m. La surface de la bulle est de 4 pi r2. donc = 2.8 x10 +23 m2.
La force de gravité qui pousse la terre vers le soleil est de G mm/d2.
La masse de la terre est environ 5.97E x10+24 Newtons.
La masse du soleil est environ 1.99 x10+30 Newtons.
F = (6.67 x10-11 * 1.99 x10+30 * 5.97 x10+24) /(1.50 x10+11 * 1.50 x10+11) = 3.54 x10+22 N
Cela représente une force de 5.93 x10-3 Newtons par kg sur terre et cela pousse la terre vers le soleil.
Mais cela est aussi égale à la force bloquée par le soleil venant derrière le soleil.
Le disque du soleil est de 6.08 x10+18 m carré et bloque la gravité spatiale derrière lui.
Vu de la terre, ce disque est 2 x plus grand sur la bulle, côté opposé.( disque violet de l’autre côté de la bulle du soleil)
Cela est une fraction de la surface de la bulle. La fraction est de 3.11 x10-14 / 1
La force totale peut être calculée comme ceci:
(5.93 x10-3) / (3.11 x10-14 )= y /1 = 1.9 x10+11 N /kg
La gravité de l’espace pousse dans chacune des 3 axes avec une force de 1.9 x10+11 N sur chaque kg de matière. On peut arrondir cela à 2 x10+11 Newton par kg.
On peut dire 0.2 millions de millions de Newton par kilogramme de matière.
Si on pouvait bloquer toute la gravité sur un côté d’un kilogramme, il serait poussé avec cette force en direction opposée. On pourrait ainsi utiliser la force de gravité pour nos besoins sur terre…
Comme la masse d’un nucléon est d’environ 1.67 x10-27 Kg, il y en a environ 5.98 x1026 nucléon dans 1 kg.
Donc la force sur un nucléon est d’environ 1.9 x10+11 / 5.98 x1026 = 3.2 x10-16 N par nucléon.
Cette force arrive de l’espace de tous les côtés et si on les réunis en 6 vecteurs pour visualiser en 3 d, les vecteurs s’opposent pour totaliser une force de 0 dans tous les sens.
Cette force est probablement ce qui permet au proton, un système contenant des milliards de parties, de demeurer presque stable car les interactions avec ce qui arrive et ce qui part lui permette d’être presqu’une sphère, d’après certains scientifiques.
N.B. Chaque vecteur sur le dessin représente la somme de tous les vecteurs ayant une composante dans cette direction. Voir la théorie des vecteurs pour mieux comprendre.
vélocité: C’est la vitesse d’un objet et sa direction par rapport à son environnement. En réalité, dans l’univers, tout est en mouvement par rapport aux étoiles. On dit que leur vélocité est relative, c’est-à-dire que la vitesse et la direction est en relation avec les autres objets de l’univers.
inertie: L’inertie d’un objet est la résistance que l’objet offre quand on tente de changer sa direction et / ou sa vitesse par rapport au milieu où l’objet est situé.
objet stationnaire: Une pomme semble stationnaire dans un plateau sur une table. Cela est vrai par rapport à la table mais comme la terre fait un tour complet en 24 heures, la vitesse de la pomme est complexe. Elle comprend la vitesse de la rotation de la terre, la vitesse de la terre autour du soleil, la vitesse du système solaire qui se déplace dans la galaxie et à la vitesse de la galaxie dans l’univers. On voit que c’est un peu compliqué et on utilise le terme objet stationnaire pour simplifier les interactions ave la pomme.
Vélocité inertielle: La vélocité inertielle signifie qu’un objet comme la pomme sur le plateau est en mouvement dans une direction par rapport à l’univers. Elle semble stationnaire car les forces qui agissent sur la pomme sont équilibrées: les forces de gauches sont égales aux force venant de la droite; les forces de tous les côtés sont égales aux forces venant de la direction opposée. La force de pesanteur causée par la gravité venant d’en haut est égale à la force du plateau vers le haut sur la pomme. Si les forces opposées demeurent égales, la pomme demeure sur la plateau à la même vitesse et dans la même direction.
Pour changer sa vitesse ou sa direction ou encore sa vitesse et sa direction, il faut exercer une force non équilibrés sur la pomme. Cette force agit sur tous les noyaux d’atomes de la pomme. Chaque noyau doit donc se réorganiser plus loin dans la direction que la force pousse. Il faut donc que chaque noyau soit modifié dans sa structure interne. Pour obtenir cela, il faut que les émissions venant de l’espace autour du noyau soient plus intenses dans une direction. Ces émissions venant à la vitesse de la lumière pénètre le noyau et deviennent une partie du noyau. Cela cause une réorganisation interne du noyau et il se réorganise un peu à côté de sa position originelle. C’est le mouvement du noyau. Il change de position, donc aussi de vitesse par rapport à sa vitesse originelle.
Un bon exemple de l’inertie est le jouet qui agit un peu comme un gyroscope. Quand il tourne très vite, il résiste à un changement de position car pour changer, il faut agir sur tous les noyaux et changer leur vélocité.
La vélocité inertielle est donc la combinaison de la vélocité de l’objet et sa résistance à changer. Une force peut le changer. Si les forces opposées sont égales, il n’y a pas de changement de vélocité inertielle.
Pesanteur: La pesanteur est la mesure de la force vers le bas. La cause de cette force vient de la vélocité de l’objet. Comme les objets sur terre vont vers l’est à un angle sous l’horizontal, cette vélocité est un vecteur. On peut décomposer ce vecteur en une partie horizontale et l’autre verticale. La partie verticale est la vélocité inertielle vers le bas et cela pousse la balance vers le bas. La balance donne une mesure de cette force et nous la nommons pesanteur.
Pour les objets situé à environ 45 degrés de latitude, l’angle vers le bas n’est que d’environ 0.00075 degrés. Trop petit pour le remarquer au niveau macroscopique. ( niveau humain).
Si un objet n’était plus poussé vers le sol, il s’éloignerait en ligne droite par rapport à l’horizontal et quitterait la terre….
Gravity is not a field in the sense used by Maxwell. It is a region where some entities are moving in strait line at speed of light. This is the best explanation for the experimental results obtained in 2017.
Apparatus used: A mirror box was built about one cubic feet. Mirrors were placed in the box to obtain a concentrated horizontal beam of light. The source of light was ten 8000 lumen LED cooled by water. A 100 g mass was placed under the box in the middle of a lever and one end of the lever was resting on the platen of a balance. The other end was resting on a knife edge.
When the light was activated, the loss of weight was recorded with a web camera.
The front side of the box is omitted to see the two grey mirrors. The yellow light beam is horizontal and is reflected upward and leaves the box as shown by the blue arrow. The left drawing is the controls for the LEDS.
After 12 minutes, the object lost 0.15% of its weight. If the experiment could last for about 666 hrs, it might have been weightless.
The box was then modified with small mirrors in order to have the light beam reflected horizontally back and forth 15 times. It then was reflected to joins the incoming light beam.
The front side of the box is omitted to see the grey mirrors.
The light from the 10 LEDS is reflected by the mirrors and stays in the box.
A 100 g mass was placed under the box in the middle of a lever and one end of the lever was resting on the platen of a balance. The other end was resting on a knife edge.
When the light was activated, the loss of weight was recorded with a web camera. The object lost 0.0124% of its weight after 60 minutes. That would be about 0.00248 %in 12 minutes.
RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT:
The hypothesis behind that experiment was that each horizontal light beam would block some of the gravity coming from space above and the 100 g mass under the box would loose some weight. Each horizontal light beam would contribute to increase the blocking effect, compare to only one light beam. The 100 g mass should loose more weight with multiple light beams.
The effect was the complete opposite. The 100 g mass lost over 60 times more weight when there was only one light beam over it.
CONCLUSION: If gravity inside the box was a kind of a field, then those results are impossible. If the energy of light was changing the amount of field of gravity, in the first experiment, the energy in the box was way less than the energy in the second experiment where the light was all contained in the box. That means simply that it is not the energy from the light that changes the amount of gravity blocked by light.
All nucleons in universe are always in motion relatively to ‘static’ space.
If gravity is emitted by every nucleon in universe, that would fill space with the entities that make gravity. These would always travel at speed of light, going in all directions. They would interact with every nucleon by becoming part of the nucleon; when more are coming from one side of the nucleon, the whole nucleon system is reassemble a little farther. An observer will say it has moved because it was pushed. This effect is not a pushing force like a billiard ball hitting another because the incoming gravity is now part of the moving nucleon system. That nucleon as a system will continue to emit gravity and thus remains almost the same as before. The added difference is a movement in a certain direction caused by incoming gravity that was more dense in one side of the nucleon compared to the other side. The pushing effect is always caused by the difference between opposite forces of gravity.
The 100 g mass receives those entities from every directions of space and these interact with each nucleon in the mass. Since the light beams blocks some of these entities coming down, the net total force from the gravity coming from below will be directed upward. That would explain the loss of weight.
With only one beam going horizontally, there is a small percentage of the entities going down that are pushed aside and not reaching the 100 g mass. The net force is lower and the weight diminish.
When multiple horizontal beams are going back and forth in the mirror box, the entities are pushed in one direction by one beam and pushed back in the original path by the next beam of light going in the opposite direction. Each odd beam cancels the effect of each even beam. Since there is a loss of light at each reflection on the mirrors, the first bottom horizontal beam is stronger than each next one and there is a small effect on the weight of the 100 g mass.
ENTITIES of gravity. I did not use the term graviton here because the word graviton is used in physic with some properties assign to it that do not correspond to the properties of the entities that are the cause of the gravitational effect. It is more appropriate to use the term region of gravity that field of gravity.
These entities resemble what Michelini named miro quanta in his paper.
It seems that these cannot have frequency as Michelini suggest because each one is unique and going at speed of light. To have frequency, we need at least 3 such things. The energy associated to each one appears only when it interact with one another. The interaction causes only a change of direction, not a change of speed which remains the speed of light.
When an intense beam of high frequency light passes through a thin sheet of heavy metal, something gets organised in a stable system called electrons and positrons. At higher frequency, it becomes nucleons and when enough of them in the system nucleon change direction, the nucleon changes its velocity. That is the origin of what we call its energy when nucleons interact with other nucleons.
Some scientists use the term wave to describe gravity because a wave represents a kind of movement. What I envisaged is more like a rain of something but that rain is coming from all directions, not only from above.
A small program does show small entities going in all directions and bouncing on one another, at always the same speed. The movement is slow compared to the real speed of light to be enable to see that movement. The program shows only in 2 dimensions and only in 6 axis.
Scientists agree that current theories in physics have a gap because gravity can not be easily united to other theories.
We begin by looking at the current theories of matter and the limits of these theories. Certain facts can not be explained by these theories.
In the second part we look at three different experimental results, which allow us to find a new approach to meet expectations.
We first explain how an object with an excess of electrons can act at a distance. We then examine the production of light and how light is transformed into matter and matter transformed back into light.
Finally, we look at the effect when light changes the gravitational force. We have over 1000 hours of scientific experiments on this effect.
It seems that light, gravity and what we call an electric field are intimately linked. These real results prompt us to look at new explanations because nothing in current theories predicted what we observed. Should we then reject the current theories? No, because in some areas they are sufficient to calculate the expected results. Instead, we need to take a fresh look at these results
CH 1 CURRENT THEORIES.
CH 2 STATIC ELECTRICITY.
CH 3 LIGHT.
CH 4 REDUCED GRAVITY.
CH 5 THE UNIVERSE.
CH 6 MATTER.
CH 7 SPACE AND TIME.
CH 8. IS LIGHT A WAVE OR A PARTICLE?
CH 9 GRAVITY DOES NOT EXERT A PUSH OR AN ATTRACTION.
CH 10 REPULSION ATTRACTION.
H 11 WHEN WEIGHT IS DECREASED.
CH 12 THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE.
APPENDIX: DETECTOR FOR STATIC ELECTRICITY
Since the first human looked at the firmament, he wondered what this universe is made of. Theories are always refined with new discoveries. They will continue to be more precise. Let us see how the science of 2000 years and more sees the universe. All agree that solid matter is made of small units called atoms. Some devices can even show so much details that we see spheres that make up the surface of a metal.
Here, IBM deposited atoms on a metal to write IBM. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_(atoms)
In 2009, another IBM team was able to photograph a molecule of nanographene;
We see how the atoms in the molecule are arranged. You can see these pictures on the internet. Http://e1.physik.uni-dortmund.de/ltstm_en
It seems therefore correct to say that matter is made of atoms. How are atoms made then? By examining their properties, we arrive at certain models of the structure of the atom.
Here are two different models that can be found on the Internet. Http://www.mediaanddestiny.org/a-meaningless-universe/Http://www.chs.d211.org/science/hausered/Chemistry/Inside%20an%20Atom.htm
Atoms: It is clear that the atoms themselves are made of several parts. These parts are made of smaller parts. Are there parts so unique that they are not made of other smaller parts yet? Perhaps not, and this is what Planck’s constant seems to suggest.When we look at electricity, we always get measurements that are multiples of something very small that we call the electron. There is no fraction of electron. Similarly it is possible that the smallest thing that exists is of the dimension required by the Planck constant (h) because all the measurements are multiples of h when we go at the level of the atoms and again towards smaller levels. We call them the last sub quantaor simply the quantas. The constant h is very small, about 6.6 x10-34 joules-seconds.
This way of writing small numbers is useful in science. For example, to write a half millimeter, we write 0.5 x10-3 m because x10-3 means 1 divided by 1000. The number of 0 in 1000 is the same as the (x10-3). One millimeter is 1000 times smaller than one meter.
The dimension of a hydrogen atom is then written as follows: 1.06 × 10-10 m. It would therefore take 6 x 1024h to arrive close to the diameter of the hydrogen. 6000000000000000000000000000.
These atoms are everywhere in the universe. They are the basis of matter that we know on earth. Atoms seem to be formed in the stars like our sun. The Big Bang theory assumes that at first there was only one small point where all matter was concentrated. After an explosion of this point, the parts went in all directions. A force called gravity attracted them and the parts grouped together, forming larger systems and finally forming the atoms that we know. These atoms are grouped together and form the stars, the planets. The biggest problem of this theory is that there must be a force of attraction called gravity. If this force is not an attraction, the theory no longer holds.
Gravity seems to play an important role in the universe and on earth. However, the effects of gravity on earth seem to be different from effects in a galaxy because stars on the edge of galaxies do not follow the formulas used on earth. We have therefore invented strange concepts such as massive black holes in the middle of galaxies to explain these differences. We also had to invent dark matter and dark energy because our formulas can not explain what is happening in the universe. Several facts seem to confirm these theories, but other less far-fetched explanations give the same answers. Who is right?
Field theories are used to explain certain facts such as gravity and static electricity. Some observations in the laboratory can not be explained by current field theory.
Some laboratories use high-frequency light to transform light into electrons, positrons, protons and antiprotons. The electron which unites with the proton makes a hydrogen atom.
The electrons that join the positrons make light. There is therefore a direct relationship between atom and light. To understand atoms, we must first know what light is and to understand light, we must see what is called an electric field.
The current theory seems to have been spread by Maxwell with his 4 equations. It is said that as soon as an object has an excess of electric charge, a field exists everywhere in the universe; This field can now influence any charged object. If the charges are similar, a light object moves away and if the charges are different, a light object gets closer.
This object sensing the field can be anywhere in the vicinity of the charged object. All these places where the sensing object feels this charge are called the electric field. According to the definition of the field, this field exists instantaneously everywhere. This would mean that the field does not spread everywhere at a certain speed but exists everywhere, instantaneously. We already see that this concept is limited because it is not possible that an electric field is instantly everywhere in the universe when one makes an electron.
It is easy to find the limits of that theory in the lab. What we find is a little different from Maxwell’s concept. One realizes then that a comb with an excess of electrical charge can be felt by a sensitive object but in addition, one can block this. An electroscope is used as a probe to determine whether an object has an overload of electrons. A plastic comb rubbed into hair can capture hundreds of electrons as the electrons in the hair are pushed much more towards the atoms of the comb; some electrons of the hair jump and go on the comb.
A simple experiment shows that what is called electric field travels in a straight line from the charged object. Here’s how to demonstrate it.
We use a rod of ebonite (a sort of plastic) charged with surplus electrons. To charge it, we rub the fur on the ebonite rod. Many electrons leave the fur and jump on the ebonite rod.
A sensitive detector made with a NAND electronic chip and 2 LED can feel these surplus electrons over a distance of more than 3 meters. (Drawing in appendix). The circuit turns on a green LED with an excess of electrons and lights the red LED if there is a lack of electrons. The red LED and the green LED turn on together if the object is neutral, with as many electrons as protons. The detector is placed one meter and the electron-charged rod is moved. The detector can light a LED each time the rod is advanced. If you advance it at a frequency of 20 times per second, the LED will turn on 20 times per second as well.
The sensitive detector is placed on the left; A rod is charged to the right with an excess of electrons. The detector LED is green to indicate the presence of an electrical charge in the vicinity.A book of neutral charge is slipped between the two without moving the rod. If the electric field is everywhere, the presence of the book between the two should not change what the detector perceives.Here is the experimental result, easy to verify in the laboratory.
The LED is immediately turned off as if we had blocked what comes from the rod If you remove the book, the LED is green again.
It seems that the book is blocking something that comes from the charged rod and goes to the detector
What is sent by the charged object travels in a straight line at the speed of light and this is what produces the electric field. We can not stop something that does not move. What leaves the rod is not a series of electrons because to send electrons over a distance of one meter, would take a thrust of thousands of volts. 120 volts can make a spark of a few millimetres only.
The rate of change of an electric field is the same as that of the change of the LED. If the rod is moved rapidly, the electric field varies in intensity at the same frequency and the detector feels it. This changing electric field is often referred to as an electromagnetic wave. It should rather be called pulsating field because there is no magnetism in the ebonite rod used.
The following drawing gives an idea of what is sent in all directions and can be blocked by a simple cardboard or book. The white circle represents the rod with an excess of electrons. The cloud that surrounds it represents what the rod sends in all directions. The density decreases with distance,
Field theory used in physics is useful mathematically but is not a real representation of what is happening. According to current theory, the field would be present everywhere, even on the other side of the cardboard. The facts show the opposite.
The object charged with a surplus of electrons can thus produce an effect like light if it is moved from one side to the other, very quickly. The light emitted has the same frequency as the movement of the object.
There is not yet an official name for what the rod sends, but the properties associated with the many invented names do not completely correspond to what experience clearly demonstrates
Maurizio Michelini calls this micro quanta in his article: A Flux of Micro Quanta Explains Relativistic Mechanics and Gravitational Interaction.
Another name would be the last sub-quanta to indicate that it is the smallest parts that exist without being made of something even smaller.
Here is another experiment that demonstrates that objects with an excess of electrons send something around. A rod of ebonite is rubbed on fur. It quickly acquires thousands of electrons taken from the fur. The sensor will feel it and the green LED will light even if it is at a distance of 3 meters. The rod is moved toward the probe: the green LED stays on. The rod is moved away from the probe: the green LED goes out and the red LED lights up.
Normally, the red LED lights up in the presence of an object like fur that has lost electrons. Why does the red LED light when the ebonite rod moves away because it still has an excess of electrons?
The most plausible answer is that all the objects in the room where this experiment is made have either a surplus of electrons or a lack of electrons or are neutral with as many electrons as protons. When the ebonite rod did not move with respect to the probe, the emission flow from the rod was constant and the LED did not change. When the charged rod approaches the probe, the intensity of this flow increases. If an object has a lack of electrons, the flow between the object and the probe is smaller than the normal average and the red /LED lights up. Similarly, when the ebonite rod moves away, the emission stream is now smaller and the probe perceives this as a lack of electrons and the red LED lights up.
The opposite happens if an object is used with a lack of electrons. At rest, the red LED lights up. If the object moves away from the probe, the green LED lights up as if there is an excess of electrons and the red LED goes out.
Conclusion: These facts demonstrate that an object that has an excess of electrons sends something in all directions, in a straight line. The further one moves away from the object, the more it diminishes. It seems that if one triples the distance, the intensity decreases nine times. The intensity seems to follow the following rule: Intensity 2 = Intensity 1 / (distance) 2.
A strange fact: if the electrons send something around, why then is there no electric field around all the objects because all the objects have electrons?
When an object is neutral, with about the same number of electrons as protons, no electric field is felt. It seems, therefore, that at a certain distance the electric field of the electrons and protons cancel each other.
However, if a sensitive probe is used in a room, it sometimes indicates an excess of electrons and sometimes a lack. This is especially noticeable in winter, in dry weather. Overall, the room is neutral but in some places the electric charge is somewhat larger than in other places. Let us see some diagrams used to demonstrate the electric field according to Maxwell.
If we have an excess of electrons, we use the name given by Faraday by saying that the object has a negative charge. He believed that the ebonite rod he rubbed on the fur lost electricity, so he put a (-) sign on the ebonite. Later, we realized that the ebonite had gained electrons but we continued to put a minus sign (-) when there are more electrons and a plus (+) sign when there is less electron. A historical error of Faraday, what!
The arrows indicate the path taken by a small object with a lack of electron if placed there. So it moves away from a positive charge and approaches an object with an excess of electrons. The closer the lines are, the greater the force that moves the object.
In the following drawing, the lines again indicate the path taken by a small object with a lack of electron. The small object would follow this path by moving away from the charge + and going towards the negative charge.
The biggest problem with these drawings is that there seems to be something starting from the object (+) and curving towards the object (-). This is false. What leaves the charge goes in a straight line and it seems to go at the speed of light. Curved lines are paths that an object would follow only. Moreover, nothing assures us that this starts from the object + or -. It will take other experiments to determine which one really sends something.
What is sent goes in all directions and the intensity decreases with distance, as shown in the drawing on the left. A charged object that moves will necessarily have a higher emission density level ahead of it. The small gray pixels indicate the intensity of what is emitted and the arrows, in which direction.
The drawing on the right tries to show how the electric field varies if a charged object has a rapid movement. The density is higher in front of the object. The electric field moves away from the charged object at the speed of light. The intensity of this field changes depending on the direction of the moving charge. If the charged object moves back and forth, a detector placed in front perceives these intensity differences as waves having a frequency and perceives this as visible light if the frequency is about 1014 cycles per second. The field now has properties of frequency and of length as a wave. Physics books name light an electromagnetic wave that does not need support to travel. It is true that light has a frequency and distance between layers, but it is not a wave like the sound wave or the water wave in a lake. This is a special case and the word wave here means something else.
A drawing often shows an electric field of varying intensity at 90 degrees to the direction of light. Another field, magnetic this time is at 90 degrees with respect to the electric field and the direction of the light. The intensity of each layer of light is indicated by a vector. This vector does not represent a 90 degrees vibration with respect to the speed of light as some authors indicate, but it indicates the intensity of the field at this point. There is nothing that vibrates at 90 degrees in this wave. There is only a variation of intensity from layer to layer and it is this variation which has a frequency. The intensity depends on the source. It decreases with the square of the distance from the source
If the electron that emits light is itself composed of the same thing as light called the last sub-quanta, then these last sub-quanta travels at the speed of light in the electron and thus continually changes direction to remain in the electron. When the last sub-quanta leaves the electron, it continues at the same speed without giving an inverse thrust to the electron. There is no reaction force on the electron when it becomes the electric field.
To produce light, it takes energy from a system. Electrons can produce visible light. The relation between the energy of the system and the light is this:
energy = frequency x h where h is the Planck constant.
Problem: If the charged object continuously sends something in all directions, at some point it will be empty and can not send anything. Yet it still keeps sending everywhere. How is this possible? Let’s look at what’s going on around us. Every object made of atoms possess billions of electrons that emit something everywhere. If we could see these, we would see that there are some that go in all directions as indicated in the drawing. from the left.
The second drawing shows a charged object that emits in all directions radially, that is, it seems to start from the center of the object. The object receives radiation from everywhere, in all directions, but seems to emit it radially outwards. Here, we put the arrows in red to show the difference in orientation. So the charged object can emit continuously because it receives from everywhere the same thing it emits. Some say it receives and emits photons. The description and properties of the photons is not quite that and we will come back to it later. Chapter 3
What is the relationship between light and what is sent by an object with an excess of electrons? Let’s see another experiment with the probe that detects an excess of electrons on an object. One moves an ebonite rod with an excess of electrons and the probe lights a green LED. The frequency of motion of the charged rod is the same as the frequency seen on the probe.If the frequency of the movement changes, the frequency of the probe also changes.The probe can be activated by making a spark between two conductive wires. An electronic circuit can vary the frequency of sparks.If the frequency is in the thousand times per second, it is said that what is sent is a radio signal in kilohertz. At higher frequency, we have the megahertz used for radio fm and tv. Even higher frequency, we have the radar wave used in microwave ovens. If the frequency is around exponent 14, there is visible light.So if you could move the rod at a frequency of 5×1014 hertz, you would see the rod yellow.Really the color of the visible light depends on the frequency. In this document, the word light is used rather than electromagnetic wave for all the frequencies, from the radio wave to the gamma ray. Light is simply a very rapid variation in the intensity of emissions from objects having an electrical charge. For visible light, the source is always the excited electrons in the atoms of the object.
Here is a drawing which allows to understand the variation of emission intensity as the ebonite rod moves back and forth from left to right. Each pixel represents what is sent as if you could take a picture of a snapshot. The white circles indicate the two positions of the rod coming and going. What is sent so is actually light that can be perceived by the eye if the frequency is high.
Truly it would be necessary to do the drawing in 3 dimensions
If one concentrates the high-frequency light and passes it through a thin sheet of gold or lead, the heavy atoms reorganize this field and make systems that are called electron and positron. We say that we have changed light itself into matter. Really we organized light into a system called electron. ( Google pictures)
Gamma light was produced at point A during a collision of a particle from a large accelerator. After traveling without interacting, the gamma interact with atoms and materializes at point B by becoming an electron and a positron. The presence of an intense magnetic field curves in the opposite direction the trajectory of the two particles. These lose speed by slowing down and spiralling before stopping. This cascade of events is observed in a bubble chamber
Hence the formula attributed to Einstein
Energy = mass x (speed of light)2
Or even better because
Energy = frequency x constant h
hf = mc2 where h = (6.63 x 10-34 J s)
Thus light becomes matter or system called electron to be more precise. The positron does not remain as a system for a very long time because as soon as it encounters an electron, it comes closer and everything again becomes light. It seems correct to say that solid matter and light are made of the same thing but organized otherwise.
Similarly, what is sent by all objects is also made of the same thing and it makes sense because it depends how the organization is done:
Stable system = atom,
System with a certain frequency = light,
Without frequency = what is sent by the ebonite rod,
Emission of light:
For some atoms to react to light, many layers of light are required to excite the electrons which then give a signal called light. This is how a detector can ‘see’ the light.
Our eyes have these detectors. A good example of this: if one looks at a distant luminous point through hair, one can see concentric circles illuminated even if the hair is not placed in a circle. Only the section of a hair that follows the exact curve of the light front will have enough excited electrons to emit light. Atoms that do not receive enough layers of light do not emit light. One often sees the same effect in a windshield in the evening in the countryside watching a remote source of light.
Looking at a bright light through long hair of Fleurange.
The concentric blue lines on the left drawing represent the layers of light that reach the hair. The small red lines show that only the section of a hair that follows the exact curve of the light front can be excited enough so that the electrons of the hair can in turn emit light. The large number of these small curves make the circles we see in the first photo.
The picture on the right shows how the hair was placed when we took a picture of intense light through these hair.
If matter and light are made from the same substance, this means that matter like atoms are complex systems made up of billions of small parts while light would be made of these substances but not organized into systems.
These substances would go at a speed of 3×108 m / s, in a straight line. If they have a constant variable density this gives it its frequency and it is called light.
All these many real observations really suggest that there is something smaller than electrons and that this is what makes electrons, protons, neutrons and even light. As the current theories are not clear on this subject, we have named them the last sub quantas or simply the quantas, with a plural s.
Gravity is present everywhere and is still the part of physics that is the most controversial. Why? The theories of gravity can not be united to other theories.The main reason is perhaps that gravity is so different that you have to look at it in a new way. We tried several experiments to discover the nature of gravity. An experiment gave results so surprising that it had to be done for nine months to try to find out if there was any error in the results obtained. We therefore continue our discovery of the universe by a description of the facts and this will lead us to a new way of looking at the universe. Here is a summary of the results of my research.I have made many experiments on gravity without results. After reading what Podkletnov did in Finland with a wheel turning quickly, I tried to block gravity with a wheel but I did not observe anything. The idea came that if the wheel turns fast and blocks gravity, perhaps the light that goes very fast could also block it.I tried to bounce a laser beam between two mirrors and measure whether the gravity of a mass of 200 g changed once placed above the light. I have not found anything.
Instead of bouncing the light, I used a blade-shaped laser beam rather than a dot. The blade of light forms a straight line when arriving on a screen. Thus one can send the blade of light very close to a mass.
Another way to check this is to replace the metal masses with masses that are not affected by electromagnetic waves. We placed a large rock crystal (apatite) and a piece of rock called hematite on the pendulum. The effect is the same as with the bronze masses.
The earth rotates. Maybe the movement of the earth is enough to move the moving mass. The effect of the movement of the earth named Coriolis acts on the movements of air. To verify this, the pendulum is placed in different directions and locations.
The pendulum is brought to the Collège Boréal in a warehouse near a wall leaning against the rock. The same effect is still observed. Here is an example of the result obtained on March 2009 with the mobile mass and the fixed mass.
Explanation of chart: The horizontal axis indicates the time in minutes. The broken line indicates the position of the moving mass during this time. The pink line indicates when the light passed between the 2 masses The vertical axis indicates the distance in cm.
Observations: At first, without light between the masses, the moving move from side to side as indicated by the blue line. The light is sent between the two masses and the small mass approaches the fixed mass rapidly. This is indicated by the red dots going up on the graph.
Conclusion: The force of gravitational attraction seems to be greater in the presence of light. This is not foreseen by any current theory. This graph is only an example because many tests gave the same thing. After all these trials, we must accept that light can change what we call the gravity between two objects.
If light interacts with gravity and blocks or deflects the trajectory of gravity, then light partially blocks gravity from outside as well. If the moving mass approaches the fixed mass, it is because the light has blocked more gravity coming from the outside; having less gravity between the masses, the moving object approaches as if attracted by the fixed mass. Actually, it is pushed from the outside towards the fixed mass. Here is a diagram of what happens when you put a ray of light between the masses.
In the next figure, without light between the masses, the moving mass is almost stable because the forces on each side are balanced. Left thrust = right thrust and thrust down = thrust from the top.
In the next figure, the light in red blocks the thrust coming from the right (the arrow which represents the force is shorter) and the mass is pushed a little more to the right; It approaches the fixed mass.
In March 2010, I stopped experimenting because the result was always the same. It was necessary to find an explanation of the phenomenon. I did not know any physical theory that could explain it. The idea that gravity was perhaps not something sent by one mass to the other mass came to me. I search the Internet and realize that others had thought about it but it was not taught in physics. Fabio and Lesage had mentioned it at Newton but Newton did not want to accept these theories.
Drawing of Lesage on wiki:
In summary, his theory says that we bathe in an atmosphere of small parts that travel very fast; An example would be the air that surrounds us even if we do not see it. These small parts push the objects in one direction or the other. Currently, you are pushed left by air molecules on one side and right on the other side. As the two thrusts are equal, you go neither left nor right. If you could block part of what pushes you to the left, then the right thrust would be stronger and you would be pushed to the right. This happens when there is a lot of wind. The invisible air pushes you further on a side where the wind comes from. You feel a thrust by the wind. A good example is the air that pushes the aircraft wing upward has more force than the air that pushes the wing down; So the plane is pushed up.
I realized that if this theory were true, it could be verified by using the torsional pendulum without using a fixed mass. Nobody to date had verified the theory and in the 1920s ++, we had stopped talking about it. In recent years, some theorists have tried to revive it.
It is said that the space around us contains many non-visible parts like the neutrinos that pass through millions every second through us. In addition, there are particles emitted by the stars and the sun that bombard us. There are also radio waves, visible light, ultraviolet light and sometimes X-rays coming from space. There may be other things we have not yet discovered.
If light could act on what comes from space, it could change the thrust on objects. This would also mean that what makes light would be of the same nature as that which drives objects towards each other, as what drives the earth to turn round the sun; this was called gravity.
To verify this theory, it is necessary to place a torsion pendulum alone, without fixed mass nearby. Once it is stabilized, a beam of light is sent close to the left side close to the mass and one observes whether the mass moves in one direction or the other. We then place the light on the other side to check if there really is a change in the movement of the mass.
It sounds easy in theory but it takes patience to verify it. After hundreds of hours, I have enough results that show that light can affect the moving mass.
In the following drawing, it is seen that the light passes to the left of the moving mass. A screen stops the light so that it has no effect on the 2nd one at the other end.
It seems that the pendulum oriented east-west is pushed on one side and the other by everything that comes from space. When the light is placed to the south of the mass, it is pushed to the south as if the thrust coming from the north is greater than the thrust coming from the south. What blocked part of the thrust coming from the south? It is light. If the light beam is changed and placed on the north side of the mass, it should now go north if the light can block what comes from the north. Yes, that happens.
The theory is verified by an experiment that all physics laboratories can check with a powerful enough laser. (N.B. The laser light must be laminar and not a small point).
The following graph clearly shows that the mass was pushed where the force of gravity was less on the side of the light. Excel software is used to record the time and position of the light spot on the ruler..
It must be remembered that the moving mass never stops moving from one side to the other. This movement at rest is only a few millimeters but can be seen very well with the luminous point of the small laser.
Here is what is recorded during a session. The blue curved line indicates the movement of the pendulum and the horizontal pink line indicates when light was directed near the mass. The red line indicates the average position of the moving mass.
When a light beam is sent near the moving mass without having a fixed mass nearby, the moving mass is pushed towards the light because the horizontal gravitational thrust is less on the light side. It is proof that the light blocks the gravitational thrust. As soon as the light is switched off, the mass returns to its rest position. This can be seen in the next following chart of April 16, 2012.
Before turning on the light, the mass moved slowly southward as indicated by the black line. The red line at the top indicates when the red laser light was activated close to the moving mass. The light is placed north of the mass; It immediately heads north and the red dot stabilizes around 630 mm. The light is cut off and the mass returns towards the south as indicated by the green line.
Possible explanation based on actual results. The green vector indicates the force coming from the north (right on this drawing) and the black vector indicates the force coming from the south. The two are equal. The two forces cancel each other and the mass remains fixed.
When the light (red arrow) passes on the north side of the mass, it blocks some force from the north. The thrust indicated by the shorter green arrow shows that the light blocked part of the thrust coming from the north. The total result of the two forces is indicated with the blue vector. The mass is pushed to the north.
Current theories say that the large mass is the cause of the attraction of the small mass. Newton did not make that assumption but most people believe that. It is as if the big mass was actually sending the gravity that attracts the small mass. If the light blocks a part of the gravity coming from the large mass, then the attraction would be smaller and the small mass should move away a little. The opposite happens, although nothing in current theories predicted. We have to accept the evidence and try to understand what is happening. If the large mass does not send gravity to the moving mass of 200 g, what moves it. An external force would have to push it. The small mass of 200 g moves towards the large mass placed to the north. If the small mass goes north, so a force pushes it from the south. When the laser beam is placed between the two masses, it passes to the north of the mass of 200 g. If the laser beam blocks a portion of the thrust coming from the north, the small 200 g mass will go north because the southern force would now be larger than the north force. This would be a possible explanation and the only one that makes sense.
A second series of experiments
A second series of experiments confirms the first discoveries. We have built a box with polished aluminum sheets to hold light in order to place objects above or below the box and measure the gravity changes of the object.
The box measures approximately 1.2 m by 1.2 m and 0.2 m high. Nine fluorescent bulbs send 63,000 lumen into the bottom partition of the box. Mirrors at the other end return the light to the partition above and so on. The light from the top partition is returned to the bottom partition. The interior design makes this clearer. A mass of 100 g is placed on a wooden support with one end placed under the box and the other end on the platen of a scale. Half of the force is therefore indicated on the scale. The reading indicates the force on the mass and on the wooden support. It is necessary to multiply the reading in grams per 1000 then by 9.8 to have Newtons.
With the fluorescent bulbs which give about 63,000 lumen, one can see a change of gravity significant enough to make measurements. When the object is placed under the light, it loses weight. On the next graph, the red line indicates when the bulbs were lit from 50 minutes to 300 minutes and closed until 420 minutes.
The most surprising thing is that an object placed above the box gains weight even if its mass does not change. Checks are made to ensure that there is no static electric field effect or air current caused by a change in temperature. Many graphs show that the more intense the light, the more the change of gravity increases. This change therefore depends on the light. On the next graph the violet line indicates when the bulbs were lit and the mass was located above the box and gained 0.06% weight.
There may be another explanation. It must explain how it can sometimes increase the gravity and sometimes decrease it depending on where the mass is placed, above or below the box. A change of temperature can not do two opposite actions like that. Nobody to date has suggested a better way to explain this.
We must accept the evidence again. Light can block what causes gravity. In addition, this means that gravity exerts a push and not an attraction as was believed. When the big mass seemed to attract the 200 g mass, in reality the 500 g did not attract the 200 g. It blocked some of the gravitational thrust coming from behind, as light did. This means that all objects made of atoms block some of the gravitational thrust. The planet blocks much, so that the objects on the ground are pushed towards the ground because the thrust coming from the top is greater than the thrust coming from the bottom. The force of gravity is the ‘response’ or the result when two opposing and unequal forces are added together. The greatest force wins and this is called gravity.
If gravity is a force that pushes objects, what causes this force?
It is now known that the void between the stars or the sun is not empty. Space is filled with neutrinos that pass through us, billions per second. In addition there are all the radio waves that travel at the speed of light because these waves are a form of light with a frequency lower than the visible light. X-rays and gamma rays are everywhere. Particles emitted by stars move all over the universe. Some theories say there are virtual particles everywhere. Others say that there is a substance called black matter because it is not visible. Would the thrust of all this be the source of the thrusts called gravitational? Perhaps. There may still be something so small that it can not be detected. Some name this as tiny strings with strange properties.
Perhaps there are still even smaller things, so small that they have no dimensions, are not made of anything else, and always travel at the speed of light. It would be the last little things that exist. No smaller amount. These would be the last sub-quanta to use physics terms.
Light can interact with what causes gravity.
The facts do not lie. This does not, however, explain how light interacts. We must understand better what light is. As light blocks gravity, what makes up light and what makes gravity must have something in common in their nature. It may be that light and what causes gravity are made of the same parts but arranged in different ways. Future research can help us understand this.
The force of gravity seems to be repulsive and not attractive.
As the moving mass is set in motion when the light passes close by, this proves that a force acts on the mass. This force is called gravity. In physics, it is believed that any change in speed is caused by any force. Since this is not an attraction, it means that this force is a push. In truth, this simplifies our concept of gravity because it is very difficult to explain attraction at distance. Chapter 10 explains how a pushing forces seems to be attracting.
What does that mean? One has the impression by lifting a heavy rock that the earth attracts the rock downwards. Really, the rock is also pushed on all sides: left, right, forward, backward, from above and from below. The thrust which came from below crossed the planet Earth and part of this thrust coming from the bottom was blocked by the Earth. So the thrust coming from the bottom is smaller than the thrust coming from the top. The top thrust wins and the rock goes down. We are pushed towards the ground by the gravity coming from the top of the space because the gravity coming from below was blocked in part by the planet earth. So the atoms of the earth can block some of the gravity. So our atoms in our bodies are pushed by gravity and thus block some of the radiation of gravity. What is not blocked continues through us.
In this drawing, the arrow pointing downwards represents the gravity and the arrow under the table represents the thrust given by the table to the object. If the two forces are equal, the object becomes stable on the table.
From the phenomena observed in the laboratory, it is asserted that matter, light and ‘fields’ are actually composed of the last sub quanta.
The 4 basic properties of these small quanta are very simple: they are not made of other things even smaller, they have no dimension but have an interaction zone equal to the short length of Planck, about 1.616229 (38) × 10−35 m. As they are the ultimate smaller entities and have no dimensions, they are recreated continually a little beside their current position so that they seem to go at the speed of light.
Since the last sub-quanta have no mass or frequency, only the being and a velocity of 3 x 108 m / s, they have no energy in the known sense in physics. Energy is only a concept that applies to interacting systems; Really, energy is summed up either with E = mc2 or E = hf or E = QV. Really one should remove the E and say simply that in the interactions, one can have this: mc2 = hf = QV. The other formulas are contained in these.
Last sub quantahave no electric charge because charge is a property of a system just like the mass.
From the properties of the last sub-quanta one can probably discover all the laws of physics and explain how matter works at all its levels. But there is a limit : the number of calculations to be made to describe everything is too big; because a single electron seems to be made of more than millions of millions of millions of millions of millions of these parts. (1030) In addition these parts travel at the speed of light and interact with each other continuously.
Gravity is a push caused by the last sub-quantas.
It is possible that the bombardment of the last sub-quanta is the causes of gravity. In the experiment described before, if the ray of light is also made of the last sub quantaadvancing in a straight line, it interferes with those coming from the north and as the quantity from the north diminishes, those from the south push the object a little more than those coming from the north. This explanation is plausible and seems to be the only one valid to date.
If gravity is a thrust from the last sub quantagoing to the speed of light from all sides, where do they come from?
The known universe is perhaps not the real limit of the universe. For example, if the current universe was as big as an ‘apple’ in the middle of a gymnasium (see drawing) and the whole gymnasium contained other galaxies and stars, in a gradual continuation from all sides of what we see, then the source of these last sub-quanta that comes to our universe would come from outside the ‘apple’ and also from the ‘apple’ itself. The amount that enters our universe seems a little smaller than what comes out because the universe grows a little bit.
When a last sub-quanta enters in ‘collision’ with another, it only changes each direction as two billiard balls in a perfect collision. So, before and after, from the outside, it is as if they had passed one through the other.
However, if several meet in opposite directions, they can bounce back in new directions. The drawing is not to scale, it serves to demonstrate how 3 or more meet, so the direction taken by each may be different from the direction of origin and there is still conservation of the momentum. If this happens often and the density is very high, some special eddies form and some remain stable. The physics laws of the systems are preserved.
5. Possible explanation why light diminishes the gravitational effect.
A look at the fission of a uranium nucleus. Each nucleus when it fissions also produces rays of the order of 1022 hertz. This light is not visible. If the gravity is emitted by the nucleus and also some light at 1022 hertz, it is possible that some emissions are without frequency like gravity that has no frequency. What is emitted by the nuclei comes from the nucleus; How is it that the nucleus does not eventually disappear if it continually emits gravity. It is necessary to realize that it emits much but also that it receives much of the space that surrounds it in various forms: light, gravity, neutrino, etc. The total amount of issuance is likely to be substantially equal to the receiving amount and the nucleus remains the same.What is emitted goes to the speed of light because light is made of what is emitted and has a frequency while gravity is the same thing but emitted continuously, without frequency.Visible light is well known, but the light used in microwave ovens is less well known. Its frequency is said to be smaller than that of the visible light. If light interacts with gravity and blocks or deflects the trajectory of gravity, then light partially blocks gravity from outside as well. If the moving mass approaches the fixed mass, it is because the light has blocked more gravity coming from the outside; having less gravity between the masses, the moving object approaches as if it were attracted by the fixed mass. Actually, it is pushed from the outside towards the fixed mass.Without light between the masses, the moving mass is stable because the forces on each side are balanced. Left thrust = right thrust and thrust down = thrust from the top. One should not consider the electrons and neutrons as small beads of matter but rather as complex systems comprising a very large number of last sub-quanta.
What is called missing matter in the universe would simply be the last sub-quanta emitted by all matter and going in all directions.
Precise and repeated experiments have shown that objects do not send gravity to other objects to attract them. Moreover, a ray of light passing between two objects increases the thrust from one object to the other. The light can act indirectly on what pushes the objects towards each other. Since the direction of light is at 90 degrees compared to the gravitational thrust, it must be concluded that the thrust comes from the outside of the objects and that light has blocked part of this thrust. This conclusion comes from the rules of vectors; For example, an eastbound force has no southern component. The objects are then pushed from the outside, going towards each other. That means gravity is not an attractive force between masses as needed to explain Big Bang. If the Big Bang theory is not possible, how to explain our universe?
Let us first see the atoms and the space that surrounds us. The objects around us are made of atoms. These atoms are made of small parts. Atoms are complex systems with different properties. It seems that the parts that make the atoms also complex systems made of even smaller parts. Small systems called neutrinos can be detected. They pass billions through us every second but it is rare that a neutrino touches what composes us. It is because our atoms seem empty for these neutrinos. They are so small that they pass through us without touching anything. To get a better idea why atoms are almost empty, we calculate the volume of a girl of 50 kg if the electrons of each atom were stuck on the nucleus. The person would occupy only 1.3 x 10-12 m3. In other words, it would take 1.3 million million people to occupy one cubic meter. We see that our matter is almost a perfect vacuum. It is for this reason that the neutrinos can pass through us without touching us. An electron can be made by sending a ray of light through a sheet of thin metal. This ray of light changes into two electrons of opposite electric charge. They are called positrons and electrons. These two have similar properties but an opposite electrical charge. The positron travels quickly and as soon as it encounters another electron, they unite and become light again. It seems then that what composes light and what makes up the electron is the same thing but organized otherwise. One can also make protons in the same way using higher frequency light, more powerful than X-rays. Protons and electrons would be made of the same thing as light …
With your cell phone, you can send messages. These messages are transmitted from one telephone to the other by what is called radio waves. Really, these radio waves are a form of light too, but with a lower frequency. Microwaves are also light but our eyes do not see it because they are sensitive only to visible light. We do not see the infrared, the ultra-violet, or the X-ray. Yet what composes all these frequencies of light is the same thing as that which makes up the atoms of our body.
Space in which we live is therefore not only filled with air but also with neutrino radiation, light from several frequencies. In addition space also contains what pushes objects to the ground and what drives the earth to rotate around the sun. In addition there are all the radiations that come from the sun and billions of stars. Space is not empty. What pushes objects is called gravity but it is not known exactly what it is made of. Many names were given, almost a name for each researcher. Everyone tries to guess the properties of what causes gravity. Most theories are not verified by laboratory experiments.
To date only one is verified by a series of experiments which always give the same result. The light of a laser beam blocks a part of the gravitational thrust on a moving object. No physics theory predicted this possibility. If the light acts on the gravitational thrust, it is because the light and this thrust have something in common. A bit like electrons and visible light. Visible light is always produced by excited electrons. And this light can in turn become an electron. It is as if the electron was a complex system composed of billions of parts. All these parts of the system mean that the electron remains a stable system. It receives thousands of parties from everywhere. If it does not swell, it is either that these small parts pass through the electron without touching it, or that the system called electron ejects these parts all the time. In fact, an excited electron ejects light from a certain frequency, depending on the velocity of the electron.
So our universe is made of what?
When one observes the sky at night, one sees certain stars of our galaxy. The other luminous points outside the Milky Way are not stars but galaxies or clusters of galaxies. According to some calculations, the mass of the universe would be between 1050 and 1060 kg. It is known that one kilogram can contain about 6×1025 neutrons or protons. Our universe would then contain between 1075 to 1085 neutrons and protons. A calculation on the Internet says that an electron would contain perhaps 1060 small parts. In all there would thus be about 10104 last sub quanta in matter. This does not count all the last sub quanta that travel in space …
Then, to sum up, the last sub quanta form systems called electrons, protons, neutrons; These form the atoms; The atoms form matter we see. Matter forms the stars, the planets, the parts of the universe. All last sub quantas that travel freely, without frequency would be the source of the gravitational force. Gravity is not a special force that attracts but the result of pushes coming from all over space, one no longer needs the famous theory of dark matter in the center of galaxies. This famous black matter is necessary in the theory of gravity attractive but is no longer necessary if gravity is not an attractive force.
The visible universe is limited to the light that arrives from space. If our universe has a certain age, light that comes from far away has not yet arrived at us and we can not see these distant stars. The latest discoveries say that our universe seems to extend like a swollen balloon. This means that beyond that which we see, there must also be matter that radiates in all directions, to our universe. The thrust of this radiation is not great enough to diminish the volume of our visible universe.Our galaxy seems to be moving to a place full of galaxies. However, by measuring the total mass of these galaxies, it seems that there is not enough mass at this location to explain the motion of our galaxy using the concept of gravitational attraction. If we use the concept of push effect rather than attraction, then there should be fewer stars on the opposite side to the movement of our galaxy. Each star blocks a bit of gravity and emits it radially. If at one side of the galaxy, there are fewer stars than the other side, then gravity is blocked a little less. We have even discovered a large, almost empty space on the other side as expected by our theory that gravity is not an attraction. These results are better explained by admitting that gravity is the result of contrary thrust coming from space. No current theory predicts that gravitational thrust can be increased by using light. Yet this has indeed happened in the second series of experiments mentioned above.
The many examples given here really seem to indicate that the universe is made of something very small, sometimes organized into rather stable systems like atoms, stars, our earth, ourselves, sometimes in frequencies like visible light or not visible and sometimes without frequency like gravity. These can change shape, light becomes atom, atom emits light. The quantity of these small parts is so large that the human brain can not imagine it.
First, let us distinguish between matter and non-matter, between what really exists and what is of the world of the imagination. What the authors of science fictions describe does not really exist but are images in the imagination. This is why the imaginary can not interact with matter because it does not exist. Humans really exist, we are not imaginary. Man belongs to the two worlds: that of matter and that of the spirit. The world of the mind is very complex but physics is not there to explain it. The only connection of physics with the world of the mind is that of the question about the origin of matter. Opinions differ on this issue. It seems that the world of matter is less perfect than the world of the spirit. It seems that matter was created and that time is a property of matter. The spirit world is outside time and matter or space because space and time are properties of matter. The material world must therefore have been made or fabricated by the spirit. This Spirit is called by the name of God in our Western world.
This means that God created matter and by doing this, time and space begin to exist. Before matter, there is no time. God, the Spirit, is outside time and space. The part of us that is spirit is imbricated in matter (our body and our morals) then our mind continues to be outside of our material body after the death. In physics, we study the behaviour of matter to discover the laws that control this matter. For years, these discoveries have been deepened; We have not yet a complete theory which would explain all the phenomena connected with matter.
Forms of matter:
It seems that matter is in several forms: we know visible matter like the fruits, the stars, our body. There is also light which is another form of matter having a constant velocity and capable of being transformed into solid matter. Solids can also be transformed by emitting visible or non-visible light. Another form of matter is felt when we fall to the ground because of the force of gravity. This gravitational field that helps to hold the moon around our planet is a form of matter because it comes from matter and also travels at the speed of light. It does not have the property named frequency because the density (or how many parts per volume) is almost constant. This density diminishes when one moves away. The farther the astronaut is from the ground, the less its gravity because the effect of the earth decreases with the square of the distance. Twice as far, the surface that receives the influence of gravity is 4 times larger, so it receives 4 times less influence and the gravity is 4 times smaller.
This drawing shows that as it moves away from the source to the left, the surface increases to the square. If we continue the drawing we will have 16 squares because 4 x 4 = 16.
There is also a field called electrical around an object that has an unbalanced electrical charge. This field comes from matter and also travels at the speed of light. It does not have the property named frequency because the density (or how many parts per volume) is almost constant. This density diminishes when one moves away. Twice as far, the surface that receives the influence is 4 times larger, so it receives 4 times less influence. This is why the perceived electric field also decreases with the square of the distance.
In summary, light and fields have a big difference with solid matter, liquid, gas or plasma (like the sun) because visible matter does not seem to go at the speed of light. If we could see inside this matter, these atoms, we would probably see that the parts that compose it go at the speed of light. These fast parts form complex systems called electrons, protons, neutrons, and these systems do not go at the speed of light. If we add the speed of the systems to the speed of the parts which compose them, we would probably have the speed of light. If these parts always go at the speed of light, it is normal that once they leave the systems, they still go at the speed of light. This is why a lamp that advances and sends light, the speed of the lamp is not added to the speed of the light that leaves the lamp.
Mass: Because the last sub quantas are not made of anything else, they have no mass. The mass of a system would then be a property of the system and not of the last sub quanta. The mass is measured on earth in three possible ways: by a comparison of weight with an object of known mass, or by the force exerted on a spring by gravity on the object, or by what is termed the inertial mass. The last measure is indirect because one observes the interaction of the object with another object in motion and the change of movement makes it possible to calculate what is called the energy of the object. The inertial mass is then deduced there from. This mass therefore depends on two factors of the system being measured: the quantity of systems or the last sub-quanta and the internal organization of the system. A cannonball that spins quickly on itself will have a greater interaction than the one that advances without spinning. It is as if its mass was greater due to its rotation. In addition, some experiments show that a small system advancing near the speed of light acts as if it had a larger mass because of its speed. It is also because the parts of the system interact differently in the collision when it goes very quickly.
Emission and reception:
In short, systems (such as atoms, stars, apples, etc.) are composed of small parts that interact with one another. The systems do not go at the speed of light but what makes them go at the speed of light.
The systems therefore emit these parts in all directions and receive them from the space that surrounds them. When they give more than they receive, they eventually emit, as when a star explodes. A balanced system emits substantially the same amount of last sub quanta it receives. We feel it by going out in the winter because we get less than we emit and our total temperature drops rapidly. Let us note that temperature is the sum total of the velocities of the parts which make up our body.
If a system emits many last sub-quanta with a certain frequency, that emission of light is called radio wave, visible light, ultraviolet, etc. This seems to be the case for the electrons around the nucleus. What is sent seems to form a spiral very close to the nucleus but in the distance it looks like circular waves as one finds on the water of a lake. This is what gives the frequency of the light wave.
If the system transmits continuously, it is called a field. For a neutral object without electric charge therefore, it is called a gravitational field. For an object with an unbalanced electrical charge, it is called an electric field. An object in motion in this electric field perceives this field as the field coming from a magnet and is called a magnetic field although it is only an electric field. It was not possible to measure a gravitational field between the parts of an atom.
If a system emits a pulse of last sub quanta but this without frequency, one obtains solitons. These are groups of last sub quanta going at the speed of light but having no frequency. They have great difficulty interacting with matter because they have no frequency to come into resonance with the system. It seems that the neutrinos are made like that.
Space and time.
Imagine a single point that exists throughout the universe and nothing else. One can not say that it moves because there is no point of reference to see its movement. There is no space between this point and another because it is alone in existence. There is therefore no space or speed.
Let’s put another point nearby. Automatically, there is a space between them. What we call space is not a physical reality but a concept in the mind of the thinking being who looks at these two points. For the concept of space to exist, there must be at least two points in the universe. If these two points always remain at the same distance from each other, they can not be said to have motion because they could move at the same speed in parallel line and the distance between them would not change. One can not yet speak of speed then but only of space between them.If one sees the distance between them change, then one can say that at least one moves with respect to the other. We have just had the concept of speed. Let us place a third point which also moves at the same constant velocity; We can predict the distance between them as they move away by inventing the concept of time.
The speed equals the distance per second or per minute. Time is therefore the distance divided by the speed. If the speed is one unit per time, it is possible to exchange time by the distance because the time is therefore the distance divided by the speed. Similarly, it is sometimes said that the distance between two cities is two hours because one implies that we travel by car at a speed of about 100 km / hour. The distance between the stars is also measured in light years. The light year is a time that corresponds to the distance traveled by light in a year. Time is only a concept, an idea that makes it possible to predict the distance between moving objects. Time has no existence as such, and outside of the physical universe one can not speak of it. For the world of the spirit, there is no time as we understand it on earth.
Our physical space has three-dimensional concept: top, front and side. If an object moves in this space the concept of time appears but time does not exist as such. When we say that time is a fourth dimension, it is only a mathematical concept and it has no existence in itself. In mathematics, one can make equations and calculations with more than three dimensions. What we call the exponent as 43 meters3 represents three dimensions. 43 meter2 represent two dimensions. 43 meters5 represent five dimensions. Similarly, a mathematical equation with two unknowns, x and y, for example, can be represented by Cartesian two-dimensional coordinates. The unknowns x and y are parameters of the equation. One can have several parameters that affect the response. Ten parameters can then be seen as ten dimensions even if ten physical dimensions do not exist.
IS LIGHT A WAVE OR A PARTICLE?
Because light has a property of frequency and distance between layers of light, one is tempted to compare it to physical waves such as sound. But sound is only a movement of particles in the air which propagates with a certain speed. The hotter the air, the faster the air molecules go and the faster the sound is propagated. Without air, there is nothing to propagate sound. Light is not propagated by something like sound; It advances in the void between the stars.
Some people have suggested that an invisible substance was everywhere in a vacuum and that light would be a wave propagated by this substance. When a wave advances in a substance each part must move and strike the neighbour to propagate the movement. The stiffer the substance, the faster the movement. The sound travels faster in water than in air and faster in steel than in rubber. To have a velocity of 300,000,000 meters per second, the vacuum should be made of a substance much harder than steel … And yet we are advancing in space on earth without effort, surely not in a substance harder than steel. Light that goes at 300,000,000 meters per second therefore does not seem to be a wave transmitted by a substance but something that advances directly at this speed, having a density that varies according to its frequency.
Since light has a velocity and a frequency, we can speak of the wavelength by analogy because we know that light is not a wave like sound. Light would be rather made of a series of layers, the density of which varies in space; this density is caused by what is sent by an electrically charged object that moves at a certain frequency. When the electrically charged object does not move, it is said that there is a stable electric field around and one can detect the presence of this field. When it moves at a certain frequency, this is called light because the density varies continuously.
The photon: It is said that light sometimes acts as a wave and sometimes as a particle, in the case of the photoelectric effect. It is then said that light is a photon.
To know that there is light, a sensitive sensor is needed which reacts in the presence of light. If the light is very weak, a very sensitive detector is required and if light becomes even weaker, nothing can detect it. It seems that what is called a photon is the smallest amount of detectable light. For example, if you have a laser beam that strikes a blank page and you see a red dot on the page and the light beam is cut quickly, the dot appears and disappears on the page. If you cut the light ray to measure one meter long, the point is visible. If this ray is shortened more and more, at a certain length, the point no longer appears because the atoms of the paper can not react enough to emit red light. This does not mean that there is nothing striking the paper but the amount is not sufficient to excite the receiving atoms. The photon would then be the minimum amount to be able to detect light.
When two rays of light of the same frequency meet on a surface, they seem to be destroyed as if the light disappeared. What happens is that the density at this point becomes constant and the detector no longer feels any frequency. It no longer detects this change associated with frequency. There is no more resonance and therefore it seems that there is no more light. The best comparison is the encounter of two waves on the water where the hollow meets the top of the wave and the water at this place seems calm. The water does not disappear but no longer has the frequency of the wave.
The intensity of light represented by a curve.
Two lights superimposed so as to have a constant intensity. A detector can ‘feel’ that there is light and the detector remains off.
Thus, light is neither a particle in the sense of the electron or the proton, nor a wave like sound but the effect of electric charges which have a frequency and which spread in space at the speed of light, for it is light.
GRAVITY HAS AN EFFECT OF A PUSHING FORCE
Gravity that acts on an object does not push the object like a billiard ball that strikes another. Gravity that penetrates the nucleons becomes part of the nuclear system and the whole system is reorganized a little further.
The proton is seen as a stable and balanced complex system made of billions of last sub quanta whose total velocity is always that of light. This is true if we add the internal velocity in the proton with the velocity of the proton in space.
Space is filled with the last sub quanta going in all directions at the speed of light.
Attraction by repulsion T
his title seems strange. But sometimes what seems to be an attraction is often an external push that causes objects to move towards each other as if they were attracted. We must really observe what happens when the velocity of an object is changed by an external force. Is it an attraction or a repulsion? We affirm here a strange assertion: the real attraction in physics does not exist: it is always a phenomenon of pushing force coming from the outside.
Gravity: For years, traditional teaching said that the masses were attracted by gravity and that the larger the mass, the greater the force of attraction. As the distance between the masses increases, the force decreases. This comes from Newton’s formula which says that the force of gravity = a constant G x mass x mass divided by the distance to the square.This can be checked in the laboratory easily. Yet nothing in the formula indicates that force is an attraction or a push. Newton himself did not believe it was an attraction but he could not prove it so he makes no assumption about the nature of this force.
The numerous results of experiments show that light can reduce the gravity of an object placed under the light and increase the gravity if the object is placed above the light. When one does this experiment, one does not change the quantity of mass of the object or the mass of the earth. Yet force varies and this is not in Newton’s formula. Several scientists have tried to explain these results in different ways. These theories must invent new unverifiable things. This resembles the scientific explanations of the Middle Ages with much magic and sorcery.
The only theory that is logical is this: Throughout the universe, atoms send something very small in all directions. When there is no frequency of emissions, this is called a field, as Maxwell said. However, the description of this field varies according to the scientist who explains it. It is said that this field is everywhere in the universe instantly because it is only a possibility that a detector can detect that the source emits something. A detector placed at one meter is activated at the same time as a detector placed at 15 light years. According to this theory, there is not something really emitted by the source because it would have to go at infinite speed and we do not like infinites. So the field is not a physical reality but rather a mathematical concept useful for calculations.
But in reality, there is something emitted by all objects and it seems that it is at the speed of light.
In summary, our experiments demonstrate that objects emit something in all directions. Then the space in the universe would be filled with that going in all directions. We already know that space is filled with light and neutrino coming from all the stars. Nothing contradicts that there is also something smaller and without frequency that fills the space. Our theory asserts that space is filled with these little things going at the speed of light in all directions. In this text, I named it the last sub quanta or simply the quantas. With this assertion, it is now possible to demonstrate that attraction is really a kind of push.
When many of these ultimate small quanta advance in disorder, without a frequency being detected, this is called the field, a little different from the Maxwell field, for it is real. When many of these ultimate small quantas advance and a frequency is detected, this is called light. If the frequency is around 1014hertz, this light is in the visible region. When a large number of these last small quantas advance in a stable group, they are called neutrinos. If these groups have an internal structure organized as a stable system, this is called electrons and protons. The other groups are unstable and always end up partly mentioned above.
This effect can be seen in our solar system and also at the level of atoms such as hydrogen. The following drawings demonstrate an area around the sun and as the thrust in this area is almost equal on each side, an object becomes a sun satellite.
Here is a drawing that gives us a better idea how the last sub quanta are in space. You can see the animation on You Tube under the name of dsq de Louis or go directly to https://youtu.be/FMnQQqKjqU0
Each small point represents a quanta going at the speed of light. Each quanta can change direction if it encounters another quanta. Here, there is no area that shows a frequency.
The sun blocks some of the emissions coming from all directions of space. Because of this blockage, there is a spherical area around the sun where there is a smaller density. At a certain distance, this effect is almost zero and the density resembles the average. In the drawing, each gray pixel represents a quanta going at the speed of light. The lighter area represents the places where the sun blocked emissions from the other side.
However, the sun also emits in all directions. The density of these emissions decreases with the square of the distance.
When the emissions from the sun are superimposed with the decrease in the density caused by the absorption of the sun, we obtain this: at a certain distance from the sun, we have a spherical zone where the density on each side is the same. An object in that region is not pushed on either side. It continues in a straight line. This trajectory pushes the object a little outside this place and it is now pushed towards the sun. In this area, a moving object (like the earth) becomes satellite of the sun because it is also pushed away from the sun and towards the sun. The two thrusts are equal. Depending on the speed of the object and its mass, it is in equilibrium at a certain distance from the sun. The small objects are currently in the asteroid belt that circulates around the sun.
The sun receives a lot from space but also emits a lot and its mass remains almost constant. Very close to the sun, the density is greater than the average. The density area on this drawing indicates this. This is what causes a comet that approaches the sun to be pushed back by these high density regions. The drawing is not to scale.
This effect occurs when the transmitter emits radially and the quanta coming from all directions go in all directions. This probably also happens at the atomic level. The proton having a mass of almost 2000 times the mass of the electron acts almost like the previous drawing. The electron of the hydrogen atom circulates in the zone where the thrust caused by the emissions of the proton is almost equal to the thrust of the quanta coming from space. Interactions of quantas with matter.
A quick calculation gives the ratio of the cross-section of the nucleus of an atom to that of the atom gives about 1 in 10,000,000.
This means that about 1 neutrino on 107 has a chance to hit a nucleus. Since they are neutral, the effect is minimal. If a last sub quanta is smaller than a neutrino, then how do they interact with a nucleus? To understand it, one must go down to the very small level of the nucleus and not compare to the macroscopic level, our level. The proton and the neutron are not steel balls that can be pushed by throwing another ball on it like billiards. They are complex systems, resembling clouds rather than a ball. The parts which compose them travel at the speed of light and interact in the nucleon. Since there is no hard surface to reflect, when a quanta reaches the outward surface, it continues in space. If the nucleon did not receive as much as it lost, it would disappear. We know that the proton is stable, it does not disappear. So it must on average receive as much as it emits.
It is also necessary to visualize that what goes into space in all directions means that the effects are not caused by a single interaction but by the difference of opposite interactions if the quantity on one side is different from the other . If the quantities are on average equal, the effect is canceled as two equal and opposite vectors cancel each other out.It is fair to say that gravity does not push and attract but changes the direction of the movement of the nucleons of an object with respect to space by becoming part of the nucleons and interacting with the parts of the nucleons.
What happens when we reduce gravity.
A cylinder of one kg is placed on a table. If it is at the equator, this location goes east at about 340 m/ s as the earth makes a turn every 24 hours. In 24 hours, at this speed, the object will have travel around the earth and will have returned almost to the same place. The drawing shows this object suspended from an elastic band. Because of gravity, the object has a weight of 9.8 Newtons. This force stretches the elastic band downward and the elastic must exert a force of 9.8 N upward. Thus, the object remains at the same height above the table. In this example it is 10 cm from the surface of the support.
The speed of the object is always 340 m / s towards the east because the earth rotates. If no force was exerted down, on the mass, it would have continued in a straight line. The following drawing which is not to scale shows that the object would be away from the surface of the table and would be in space after a few minutes.
If the object after one second has traveled 340 m in space and is still above the table, it is because it has two directions in its speed. A horizontal direction that has a value of 340 m / s and the other vertical which has a value of about 15 cm / s. In physics this is demonstrated by arrows called vectors.
The arrow that is angled downwards is called the resulting speed when the two speeds are added together. The large arrow to the east represents the speed of 340 m / s and the down arrow represents the speed of about 15 cm / s. This drawing is not to scale because we would not see the small arrow down. If one sends a lot of light horizontally above the object, its gravity decreases and the force of the elastic returns it a little higher, towards 20 cm.This means that the downward velocity vector has decreased a little and the other vector has a smaller angle.
We continue to send light above and gravity decreases. The object is now 30 cm from the table, then at 40 cm and finally at 50 cm.
It does not rise higher because it is in a state of levitation. Its final speed vector makes it float above the table and the elastic could be removed as it exerts no more force upwards. It is said that the object is in orbit above the earth or is geostationary.
Really what happens when one decreases the force of gravity down on an object, it changes the direction of the object in space and becomes geostationary like the high satellites in space.When the light source is closed, the downward force changes the angle of the resulting velocity and the original weight returns slowly.
If the light is left above the object longer, the force of gravity coming from below will lift the object and it will stick to the ceiling. Its speed vector points a little upwards. The light can be shut off and the object will remain up. It goes down only when the speed vector points down. The fact that the object remains in levitation state after the light is shut off proves the space time curvature theory is wrong.
The beginning of the universe
If the Big Bang theory is not possible, how did our universe appear? A simple answer is possible if we admit the existence of the last sub quanta which are the basis of our matter, of light, electricity, gravity and other physical phenomena.
We know that matter is made of electrons, protons and neutrons and that these can be produced in the lab with high-frequency light.
We know that all frequencies of light are really successive layers of billions of quantas emitted by a source.
We know that in the stars the atoms of helium are produced by the fusion of smaller atoms, and that the larger atoms are also made by the fusion of smaller atoms. We see in the universe clusters of hydrogen that gather and make stars. SOIt is easy to predict that by having an immense amount of quantas going at the speed of light they can interact with each other. Air molecules are often seen to set in motion and form small or very large vortices such as cyclones. In a similar way, the very large number of quanta that interact with each other sometimes form more or less stable groups. A group called electron and a group named proton seems to be so stable that we do not know what their half-life is. This is because they interact with what comes from space by using these quantas and integrating them into their system. They remain stable because they emit on average as much as they receive. These systems are grouped to form the other atoms and thus all the known material is manufactured. In addition the emissions of these systems are at the origin of what we call gravitational field and electric field as well as the fields having a frequency that we call electromagnetic wave or simply light. The formation of these systems is continuous in space and observed by the telescope. As the speed light is slow compared to the size of the universe, only one section of the universe can be seen. The quanta that arrive from everywhere often come from outside of what is known to our universe.
You can also see the other two videos.
A detector that is sensitive to static electricity. Uses a CMOS 4000 chip dual 3-input NOR gate and inverter and makes this circuit. When the detector is near an object with excess electron, the green LED lights up. Red LED will light up when it is near an object that has lost electrons. Both light up when the object is neutral. The resistors are 320 and 1200 ohms. This circuit was mistakenly discovered by a student and it works very well.I used this chip: HEF4000BPB
This book is a vulgarization of the discoveries that led to the development of the theory of the last sub quanta. These sub quanta would be what makes up atoms, light, electric field, gravity, in short, our universe.I could quote many references that support this document and also many that prove that this is not possible. I therefore only quote my findings and each one has to decide. Scientific reports can be found at:
Effect of light on gravitational attractionArticle in Physics Essays 24 (4): 557- • December 2011DOI: 10.4006 / 1.3653936 And Applied Physics Research; Flight. 7, No. 4; 2015,