Planets in gravitational well

Planets in gravitational well

Far in space, gravitational force coming from one direction is almost cancelled by gravitational force coming in opposite direction. An object in that position continues in strait line because the net force on it is zero.

Because of all its atoms, the sun blocks some of that gravitational force around itself. An object located in that space is pushed towards the sun because gravitational force coming from direction opposite to the sun is bigger now.

REGION OF LOW DENSITY OF SPACE EMISSIONS AROUND THE SUN   BECAUSE IT IS BLOCKED BY THE SUN

49

But the sun itself is also an emitter of gravity. That means close to the sun gravitational force is bigger that in space around. That extend to a certain distance from the sun. At a certain distance, the density of gravitational force from one side is almost equal to the density of gravitational force coming from the direction of the sun. That makes a kind of big sphere where gravitational force is almost equal on each side on a line pointing toward the sun. That region or bubble is the gravitational well . Planets cannot go in strait line because in doing so, they enter a region where the gravitational force from outside is now bigger and they are  pushed back towards the sun. When they approach the sun, the same thing happens in opposite: the gravitational force coming from the sun is now bigger and the planet is pushed away, In that manner, the planet goes around the sun and is a satellite.

Region around the sun emitting in all  direction added to what is emitted from                                space  causes a different density region.

49                                                             .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If we add the two gravitational forces, we have something similar to that drawing, showing the low density of gravitational force all around the sun.

The graph show where the planets are in that ‘well’.

The mass and the speed of the planet will permit to find an equilibrium point and it becomes a satellite to the sun. Small planets are far…

wel2

 

    MERCURY  /  VENUS  /  EARTH  /  JUPITER  /  SATURN  /  URANUS

The graph is not to scale.

 

The gravitational force in this graphic represents the net total force when we add opposite forces. The net force at 15 is almost zero. Further, the force is towards the sun. Before 15, it is away from the sun. Depending on its speed, the planet finds the distance away where the force towards the sun equals its centripetal force.

Einstein seem to have a vague idea of that gravity well and tried to explain it with his theory of space time curvature. Space is not curved but its different density will influence objects towards the sun as if it was “curved’ inward.

 

The intensity of emissions from the sun goes down as the square root.

The intensity of the blocking effect of the sun on space gravity increases with the square.

The following graph  shows the sum of these to demonstrate the bottom part of the ‘well’.

well 3b

Following the equation (F = Gmm/dd) there is a possibility to have planets between the sun and Mercury if the speed is big enough. There is no such planet there. This is because of the gravity well described here. A planet closer to the sun would be pushed away by sun radiation of gravity.

Gravity transformed into light

Gravity transformed into light

 

The experimental results on the effect of light beam on  gravity suggest strongly that light and gravity can interact together. That also suggest that what makes light and what makes gravity both travel at the same speed. It is even possible that the entities making light and entities making gravity are the same but are travelling in two different manner through space.

Gravity would be emitted by every nuclei in all directions without any frequency but in a continuous manner.

Visible light is emitted by electrons and these emission have a frequency because there is a variation in intensity when electrons emit light.

A simple experiment could verify if that is correct. If gravity and light are made of entities exactly the same but traveling in different manner and since light seems to be able to block some of that gravity, an apparatus can be build to transform gravity having no frequency to a flow having frequency, the same as light.

Some powerful laser can be activated in a pulse form instead of a continuous emission. If such a beam is transformed into a line beam it could be use like this.

Send a laminar light beam horizontally in the same plane as the floor of the lab. ( a laminar beam produces a strait line when hitting the wall; that line has to be horizontal)

  1. Use a high frequency for that laser light, for example at a frequency of 1014 c/s. which would be in visible spectrum.
  2. Place a metallic barrier over and above the apparatus.
  3. Place a sensitive detector above and on below the apparatus and connect them to a double beam oscilloscope.

N.B. If gravity vectors in the vertical direction are changed from continuous flow to a pulsating flow, the sensors will show that result on the oscilloscope.

  1. Compare the intensity of both signals received from the sensors.

N.B. Since the upward gravity is less than the downward gravity, the sensor over the apparatus would have a smaller intensity than the sensor under the apparatus.

  1. Rotate the whole system by 90 degrees in order to have measures coming from the horizontal vectors of gravity.

N.B. In that position, since the gravity coming from one side is almost exactly equal to the gravity coming from the  other side, the two sensors should indicate the same intensity.

Conclusion: If there is a change of intensity in the first part of experiment ( 1 to 5) that is a clear indication that gravity flow was changed from continuous to pulsating flow. Gravity was changed into light. It is also a strong indication that gravity is pushing, coming from all directions in space.

That discovery will help to better understand light and gravity and might be worth a Noble Prize.

LEVITATION vs ZERO GRAVITY

LEVITATION vs ZERO GRAVITY

Definitions:

-Levitation  is defined by the action to cause to rise or float in air.

-Zero gravity is the condition in which the apparent effect of gravity is zero, as in the case of a body in free fall or in orbit.

There is no real zero gravity in our universe but there are some regions where the gravity coming from one side is exactly balanced by gravity coming from opposite direction. The net result is zero force on an object. According to Newton’s law, the object will keep its speed and direction unchanged. This is the case for astronauts.

All objects in our universe are always in motion having a speed and a direction. The term velocity is used in science to describe that movement having a speed in m/s  and a direction in degrees relative to the horizon.

The usual method to achieve levitation is to have a force opposing the gravitational force. Good examples are forces from the air on the airplane wings, force from a magnet or from static electricity or simply force from someone lifting an object.

Levitation could be achieve also if the gravitational force in one direction is blocked so that the opposing force will move the object in a new velocity. That was done using horizontal powerful light beam under an object: the  object was pushed down as if it gained weight. When the light beam was over the object, this object changed its velocity and it appeared to loose weight. The inertial mass has not changed, only the direction of movement.

Here are some experimental results of April 22, 2017.

A 80 000 lumen light from 10 LEDS was sent horizontally in a mirror box about 1 cubic feet in volume.

A 200 g mass suspended under the box lost an average of 0.0124% of its weight during 60 minutes. Its original direction going East at an average of 300 m/s and an angle of -2.95×10-4 degrees, changed to an angle of -3.05×10-4 degrees.

Since the change in weight seems to vary directly with time, after about 8000 hours it would loose 100% of its weight and would float freely in air. That would be real levitation without using any force to oppose gravity.

During the same time a 100 g mass placed over the box having a weight of .986449 N was increased to 1.003336 N in 60 minutes. The angle of its motion changed from an angle of -2.95×10-4 degrees to an angle of -2.85×10-4 degrees.

That means weight in Newtons is the force needed to counterbalance the inertial mass tendency to continue in strait line at same speed in order to  change that velocity. It could be done by changing the speed or the angle or changing both the speed and the angle. A change in velocity is called acceleration in physics. Since that depends on the inertial mass of the object, the formula for that force is simply this: force = mass x acceleration.

During an experiment in 2009, the laminar light beam from a 1.5 watt red laser light was directed from south to north. The beam was making a strait vertical line on a wall at an angle of 45 degrees. A mass placed near the light beam was pushed towards the light because some of the gravitational force coming horizontally from the other side of the beam was blocked by the light. The net resulting force was an horizontal force directed towards the light.

That effect is a good proof that the force of gravity is a pushing force coming from all directions from space. Also it shows that light does interact with that force.

Another conclusion arising from these experimental facts is that the theory of gravity being a kind of deformation of space-time is not possible. The space-time curvature depends on mass and energy. Since the mirror box used in the experiment contained the same amount of light and no change in mass, the change in weight that was observed cannot be attributed to a change of mass or light energy. Since there was no change in mass or light energy, if the theory was correct, there would be no change in gravity. But there was a change. Moreover, when the light was shut off, the change of weight did not disappear instantly as it should in that theory. The change of weight is slow until the original weight is achieved after the light is shut off. That means, if enough time permits complete levitation, an object would continue to levitate when taken outside the box after the lights are shut off until its original weight is back. Interesting…

Gravity accelerates objects by changing direction, not speed

Gravity accelerates an object by changing the direction of movement of an object without changing the speed of the object.

The apparent acceleration of an object falling to the ground is really a change in direction of a moving object. The following explanation will clarify this statement.

For clarity, we define speed, velocity and acceleration as used in this text.Speed of an object is the measurement of the distance covered in a certain time. That distance can be a strait line, a curve line or any form.Velocity of an object is the measurement of the distance covered in a certain time in one direction in a strait line.Acceleration of an object is the measurement of the change of velocity per second. It could be a change in velocity or a change in direction or a change of direction and velocity.In a clock with a needle for seconds, the tip of the needle makes one trip around in one minute, at constant speed. Its direction changes all the time but  the speed remains constant. Because the direction changes, we say it has an acceleration.

We consider here a 1 kg mass located 10 meters from the surface of the earth. The explanations is similar for all objects in universe.

Before releasing the 1 kg, the object seems at rest compare to the floor of the laboratory. In reality, because the planet makes a full rotation every 24 hours, the object is moving east. Depending on the distance from the equator, the speed is different. In Ottawa, Ontario, the speed is close to 340 m/s directed parallel to the ground. It also have a speed directed downward at about an average of 5 m/s.

If the object after one second has traveled 340 m in space and is still above the ground, it is because it has two directions in its speed. A horizontal direction that has a value of 340  m / s and the other vertical which has a value of about 5m / s. In physics this is demonstrated by arrows called vectors.

54

The arrow that is angled downwards is called the resulting speed when the two speeds are added together. The large horizontal arrow to the east represents the speed of 340 m / s and the down arrow represents the speed of 5 m / s. This drawing is not to scale because we would not see the small arrow down.

In addition, the whole solar system is moving at 220 kilometres per second. Since we are looking at what happens in the lab, we do not have account that in our explanation.

Because the force of gravity is coming from all directions of space, the net force going horizontally is close to zero because the opposite forces are almost equal and cancel one another. Since the horizontal net force is close to zero horizontally, it does not accelerate the 1 kg appreciably in the horizontal direction.

The forces acting vertically are not equal because planet earth blocked some of the force coming from the other side of earth. The force directed downward is greater that the force directed upward. The result is close to 9.8 N per kg, depending on location on earth. It could be rounded to 10 N/kg for simplicity.

That means the 1 kg  will go down at an average speed of 5 m/s until it falls to the ground.

Since the object is moving east at 340 m/s and the acting force of gravity is at 90 degrees compare to that speed, it has no acceleration effect in horizontal direction.

The speed directed downward increases in relation to the ground. Really, the ground is also moving east.

The speed of the 1 kg is always 340 m / s towards the east because the earth rotates. If no force was exerted down, on the mass, it would have continued in a straight line away from the floor. The next drawing show what would happen if there was no downward forces on 1kg.

53

Compare to the ground there is an acceleration 9.8 m/s2 for the 1 kg falling to the ground. But the ground is also ‘going down’ relative to space and moving east. In reality, there is a change in direction of a moving object so that the object seems to fall on the ground. Relative to earth fix space, gravity did not increase the speed of the object. The acceleration due to gravity is a change of direction, not a change of speed. This applies to all matter in universe because matter is always moving slowly compare to the moving light.

Gravitational and inertial mass

Gravitational and inertial mass

We can measure the mass of an object by comparing its weight to the weight of a known object, using a balance. If the known object has a weight of 9.8 Newton,  its mass is 1 kg. If the test object also has a weight of 9.8 N, we say its mass is also 1 kg.

We measure the inertial mass of an object by having a force changing the movement of the object when that movement is in a horizontal plane in order to prevent gravity to change the readings. A simple inertial balance is like this: (http://www.arborsci.com/inertial-balance)

balance

The object is placed on a support attached to two metal strips. These strips can move horizontally only when a force pushes it aside from rest position. The movement back and fro depends on the amount of mass on the support: big mass will cause a slow back and fro movement; small mass will cause a fast back and fro movement. If the frequency of different tested mass is plotted on a chart, an unknown mass is used and from the chart its inertial mass can be calculated.

The question asked for years was this: is there a difference between inertial mass and gravitational mass.

With the advent of apparatus that can increase the weight of an object or decreased its weight using an horizontal laminar light beam, a new verification is now possible.

Take two 100 g  mass. Each has a weight of 0.98N.

Put one 100 g mass over the apparatus and one under the apparatus. When 100 g mass under the light starts to levitate, put it on an inertial balance. Put the 100 g mass that was over the apparatus with  an increased weight on another inertial balance.

Give each balance a small push horizontally and note the frequency of each one. The frequency will be very close to one another even if one has almost triple the weight of the other one.

Put a third mass of 0.98 N on one of the inertial balance and compare the frequency. The frequency of the light mass is almost double.

That will show that the weight of the object is simply a force on the object and does not change the mass of the object.

Conclusion: If 2 objects have the same weight and are both subjected to the same gravity, they will also have the same inertial mass.

We hope that many laboratories will start to make the apparatus to change the weight of objects. In 2016, there was only one of these on planet earth.