Electron diffraction explained:

Electron diffraction explained:

Here is one of the experiments most scientists refer to show that electrons can go through 2 slits at the same time, thus proving that electrons are waves.

Another possible explanation is given below that might explain what really happened.

 http://www.diyphysics.com/2013/04/02/in-memoriam-dr-akira-tonomura-1942-2012/

 In Memoriam – Dr. Akira Tonomura (1942-2012)

Published on April 2, 2013 by David Prutchi in Chapter 5 – Wave-Particle Duality, Single-Electron Experiments

We recently learned the sad news that Dr. Akira Tonomura – a truly great experimentalist – passed away on May 2, 2012 during the course of treatment on pancreatic cancer.

We have been great admirers of Dr. Tonomura.  Our blog’s banner is a cartoon representation of an experimental setup developed by Dr. Tonomura, through which in 1986 he showed single-electron buildups of electron wave interference fringe patterns. This experiment clearly revealed the dual nature of electrons and was described by Physics World magazine as the world’s most beautiful physics experiment, ranking above the historical experiments of Galileo Galilei and Robert Millikan.

double slit 1

Schematic representation of Tonomura’s experiment to demonstrate double-slit interference with one electron at a time. From D. Prutchi and S. Prutchi, “Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects”, J. Wiley & Sons, 2012

This figure from our book “Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects” shows a schematic representation of the modifications that Tonomura made to a transmission electron microscope to develop his experimental setup. Electrons are emitted from a very sharp tungsten tip by applying a potential difference of 3 to 5kV between the tip and a first anode ring through an effect known as “field emission.” These electrons are then accelerated to the second anode potential of 50kV (the de Broglie wavelength for the accelerated electrons is λ=0.0055nm). Assorted “electron optics” within the modified electron microscope attenuate and focus the electron beam so that a current of barely 1,000 electrons per second is beamed towards the double-slit.

The double-slit is actually an extremely fine wire filament (1μm diameter) placed between two conductive plates a centimeter apart. The wire is biased at a positive voltage of 10V relative to the plates. This arrangement is known as an electron biprism.

Obviously, any electrons that make it past the biprism must have gone either through one or the other side of the fine wire. Two electron lenses then magnify the interference pattern 2,000 times and project it onto a fluorescent screen. Each 50keV electron hitting the screen produces about 500 photons which generate photoelectrons inside an intensified position detector.  A computer then integrates the hits to produce a final image of the electron interference pattern. Through which slit did each of the electrons go? The answer is that somehow each electron goes through both slits at the same time!

Another one of Dr. Tonomura’s major accomplishments was his experimental verification of the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect. For this experiment, Dr. Tonomura used electron holography. Tonomura fabricated a tiny toroidal ferro magnet covered with a layer of superconducting niobium to perfectly shield the magnetic field. His group then measured a phase difference between the electrons that traveled through the central hole of the toroid and those outside it. Although the electrons had only progressed through regions free of electromagnetic fields, there was an observable effect produced by the existence of vector potentials, and thus verifying the AB effect.

We are deeply saddened for the untimely death of such a great scientist.

 

When we are looking to find a proof of a theory, we tend to disregard other possible explanations if the results seemed to confirm the theory.

In this experiment, the electrons did not go through 2 fine slits. A fine wire was placed in their path. When an electron goes far enough from the wire, it goes strait to the screen below.

Because the wire is positive 10 volts, if the electron passes closer to the wire, it is force to go close to the wire. Some electrons touch the wire and do not go further. Some electrons passes near the wire and their path is bent a little before going to the screen. We have to remember that the surface of the wire is made only of electrons also. The electrons of the wire have a specific velocity and all the values are not possible. We say that these values are quantized, meaning they jump from on value to the other. That is why when a moving electron gets close to the wire, it will experience a force that is also quantized. That is why the screen will show regions where more electrons fall and regions where less electrons fall. They do not go through both side of the wire and they did not interfere with themselves because they are not an kind of electric wave. They are complex systems that can be produced simply by passing a high frequency light through a thin metal sheet.

 

Another experiment with 2 real slit was performed and can be seen at https://courses.physics.ucsd.edu/2017/Spring/physics142/Lectures/Lecture3/DoubleSlitExperiment.pdf

 

The results gave this picture:

double slit 2

They are similar to the former picture. But since the side of the slits is made of atoms and the electrons of these atoms have energy not in continuous form but as a multiple of h also, it is normal that single electrons passing through the slit gets a certain energy that is a multiple of h also. That is enough to explain the dark regions where less electrons activate the sensors. It does not necessarily means that a single electron passed though both slit as a wave and recombined as a particle when hitting the sensors.

 

EM drive solved

EM drive solved

EM drive are tested by NASA and the results show that using microwave frequencies, a pushing force is generated on the apparatus. Some theories states that this force is not explainable with present physics theories. That force is still possible with our theories if we include gravity in its real nature.

SUMMARY:

To prove that, an experiment was done with a specially designed aluminum box where visible light was sent horizontally inside the box. Any object placed under the box does experiment a loss of weight and any object placed over the box gains weight.

Weight is a force coming from gravity. The most plausible explanation that does not contradict any physics laws is that light going horizontally can and does interfere with gravity that was going vertically, up and down. That explains why an object under  light rays looses weight; the gravitational force coming from above is now smaller than before and the total vertical forces are now the upward force minus the downward force, giving a smaller weight force. To see more results on the testS made, consult GRAVITYFORCES.COM.

MORE DETAILED EXPLANATIONS:

The EM drive used by NASA produced the same effect. The light used is in the radar range and was able to block some of the gravitational force. The apparatus was tested in vacuum and did have positive results. We do not need to invent new theories to explain the effect.

images from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RF_resonant_cavity_thruster  and from Google images and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M51c6DrzJU0

UN

Explanations for the em drive:

– image 1 shows the picture of the actual em drive tested at NASA. There was a small force on the apparatus pushing from right to left. That will be explained further.

– image 2 shows a drawing of the  path followed by the microwaves inside the drive.

– image 3 shows the forces from the microwave and the net force on the apparatus itself.

– image 4 shows the direction of microwave forces

To understand the origin of the net force on the apparatus, we have to examine how light behaves between two mirrors. This was tested many times with a point laser light and flat laminar laser beam.

Two front surfaces mirrors were aligned parallel to one another at a distance of 5 cm. A red laser point beam was sent at a small angle in order to bounce many times between the mirrors and to come out at the other end. We wanted to measure a change in weight of 100 g placed over the bouncing ray of red light.

DEUX

The results were surprising. It was impossible to have the laser light to bounce many times between the mirrors when the angle was small. Instead, the light rays will bounce many times and the angle of reflection was getting smaller at every reflection. After many reflections, the light rays were bouncing at right angle to the mirrors and made a brighter light. Some literature mentioned that many light beams are ‘attracted’ to one another.

Another experiment used two flat mirrors about 30 cm by 30 cm, placed parallel to one another in a wooden box. A flat blue laser light was sent at a small angle in order to have the light bounce until it escape at the top of the mirrors. It never happened. The angle of reflection was getting smaller at every reflection. After many reflections, the light rays were bouncing at right angle to the mirrors and made a brighter light. Even by changing the angle of the back mirror to increase the reflection angle did not change the fact that the light beams were getting closer to one another after many reflections.

Another set of experiments were done where 63000 lumen light was sent horizontally under a 100 g mass. Its weight decreased. When the 100 g mass was located above the light beam,  its weight increased.

TROIS

When a powerful 80000 lumen light  was sent horizontally only once over a 100 g mass, its weight decreased also.

The same amount of light was forced to bounce between mirrors 15 times and the net result on the 100 g mass located under the light was about 100 times less than with a single light beam.

From all these observations, it really seems that light can change the gravitational forces on an object. Since an attractive force cannot explain all the facts, it seems that gravity is a pushing force coming from all directions of space. When  a light beam hits the gravity at a right angle, it changes slightly the direction of that force. If the change is big, the gravity coming down on a 100 g mass would be less that before and the gravity coming from  under the object would push the 100 g mass upwards as if its weight had decreased. That effect was confirmed by an independent scientist in Prague. Both papers can be seen on Internet. A more detailed description can also be found on GRAVITYFORCES.COM.

 LIGHTS EXERTS A PUSHING FORCE ON ATOMS DIRECTED TOWARD THE LIGHT BEAM. THE LIGHT BEAM HAS TO BE AT RIGHT ANGLE COMPARED TO THE DIRECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL FORCE.

 About the em drive now.

Close observation of the apparatus shows many resemblance with our results.

An em wave is sent at right angle inside the cavity. That em wave is a kind of light in lower frequency that visible light. It has the same physical properties as visible light.  The second image tries to show how that light bounces inside the cavity but it was not observed directly. It is theory and probably wrong. If that light behaves like we measured between mirrors, it means that there is a region in the cavity where the light is bouncing back and forth at right angle with the walls. That would probably be in the region with a cylinder form.

If the total mass of the apparatus is considered now, we have a bigger mass where the apparatus expand like a cone and a smaller mass in the cylinder region. Since gravity pushes mass toward the intense light beams, the force on the bigger mass toward the light is bigger than the force of the cylindrical part toward the light. The net force is directed like the thrust arrow in image 3.

That is consistent with all the observations made in our multiple experiments. There is no magic here and it follows normal physics rules.

Gravitational forces on objects:

Gravitational forces on objects:

forces 1

IF GRAVITY IS AN ATTRACTIVE FORCE:

An orange above ground is attracted downward by the mass of the earth ( big green arrow) and upward by all the stars above in space. ( small green arrow).
The net force when they are added gives a force directed down to the ground.

IF GRAVITY IS A REPULSIVE FORCE:
An orange above ground is PUSHED downward (big green arrow pointing down) by all the stars above the orange and also it is PUSHED upward (big green arrow pointing up) by all the stars below.
But some of that upward force is blocked passign through our planet and only a small upward force remains. (small green arrow pointing up)
The net force when they are added gives a force directed down to the ground just like the previous example.

forces 2
Conclusion: The net result is the same for the orange going towards the ground and that means we have to look at this differently to find if gravity is a pushing or an attractive force.

A series of experiments were done that clearly show that gravity is a pushing force.
The results of these experiments also show that an intense light beam can deviate the direction of gravity.

The papers explaining that discoverie can be found here:
Physics Essays 24,4 (2011)
Effect of Light on Gravitational Attraction by Louis Rancourt

Applied Physics Research www.ccsenet.org/apr Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2015 issue.
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/issue/view/1345

Further Experiments Demonstrating the Effect of Light on Gravitation
Louis Rancourt, Philip J. Tattersall

A scientist from Prague did a similar experiment not aware that we had already published the results. His findings confim what we found. That is a scientific confirmation of the validity of our results. You can access his findings at:

PHYSICS ESSAYS 30, 2 (2017)
Experimental verification of electromagnetic-gravity effect:
Weighing light and heat
Libor Neumann a)
Brdicˇkova 1910, 155 00 Prague 5 – Luzˇiny, Czech Republic

Here we will give a summary of similar results that can be tried in any secondary school.

forces 3

Two very heavy balls are attached by a wire to the ceiling. Because of the heavy masses, they will start moving and will come closer to one another. If they are at the right distance, they will not touch but almost.
According to attractive force of gravity, the forces that move the masses originate from the 2 balls according to the formula: force = G x mass x mass / distance squared.

G = 6.674 28 (+/- 0.000 67) x 10-11 m3 kg-1 s -2.
A wall is located at the right side of the room and a powerful light beam is sent horizontally. It’s direction is at 90 degrees compare to a line between the 2 balls. The rectangular orange block represents that light.
Because the light is on the other side of the wall it should have no effect on the forces between the 2 balls.
When this is tried, a surprising effect is observed. When the light is activated, the 2 balls start to move away from one another. It seems that the gravitational force between them is getting weaker. There is nothing in present theories that predicted that strange effect. Similar experiments were done for over 1000 hours and the results were all the same. Something was happening that no theory could explain.

If one ball is removed and we wait until the last one stop oscillating, the light is activated on the other side of the wall. The ball starts moving towards the hidden light. Another effect that was not expected. It seems that the light is attracting the ball even if the ball cannot ‘see’ the light.

That effect cannot be explained by attractive gravitational forces but it can be easily explained by a pushing gravitational force.

Here it is:
We know that chinese people on the other side of the globe do not ‘fall’ in space but stay on the ground as we do here. That means there is gravity everywhere in space.

Let us go back to the experiment with one ball and an horizontal beam of light.
Gravity is pushing the ball from every directions, from left to right, from right to left, from up to down, from down to up. The wire prevents movement up and down but permits the ball to move from one side to the other.
Without the light, the forces of gravity are equal from every opposite directions and the net force is zero and the ball stay put.
When the light is activated, the gravity coming from the right side passes through the light beam before going to the ball. Some of that gravity is deflected towards the back of the room and the net result is that the gravity coming from the left side is now stronger than the gravity coming from the right side and that pushes the ball to the right, where the light beam is located. That does not mean that light attracts the ball, It means that light can deviate what causes gravity.
That is a strong proof that gravity is a pushing force, not an attractive force.
That also means that gravity can be partially blocked by light going at right angle compare to gravity.
That also expaling why objects ard pushed downward on earth because gravity from space above is stronger that gravity coming from below because some was deviated by the atoms of our planet.
That also explain why planets orbit the sun. Another document does explain that in more details.

Planets in gravitational well

Planets in gravitational well
The explanations here are based on a pushing theory of gravity. For the proof that gravity is a pushing force that can be blocked, read Gravitational forces on objects.
Far in space, gravitational force coming from one direction is almost cancelled by gravitational force coming in opposite direction. An object in that position continues in strait line because the net force on the object is zero.
Because of all its atoms, the sun blocks some of that gravitational force coming from space around itself. If it was possible to see the density of gravitational force coming from space near the sun, the density close to the sun would be less than far away. In this drawing of a frozen picture of gravity, every black pixel would represent gravity. The sun is represented by the red circle.
Gravity from space is blocked partially by the sun; gravity density is lower close to the sun and increases far from the sun according to distance squared.

soleil 1

graph 1

For example, the above graph shows at a distance of 1E+10 m the intensity measured in special units would be 100 but at a distance of 1E+20 m the intensity would be 400 units.

———————————————————————————————————-
Gravity coming from all regions of space was first emitted by all the atoms in universe. The sun itself is also an emitter of gravity. That means close to the sun gravitational force from the sun is bigger that in space around. That extends to a certain distance from the sun and density decreases with the square of distance.

soleil emet

graph 2

For example, at a distance of 1E+5 m the intensity measured in special units would be 450 but at a distance of 1E+10 m the intensity would be only 200 units.
At a certain distance from the sun, the density of gravitational force from one side is almost equal to the density of gravitational force coming from the direction of the sun.
That makes a kind of big sphere; the skin of the sphere is where gravitational force is almost equal on each side of a line pointing toward the sun.
That region is the gravitational well. Planets cannot go in strait line because in doing so, they enter a region where the gravitational force from outside is now bigger and they are pushed back towards the sun. When they approach the sun, the same thing happens in opposite: the gravitational force coming from the sun is now bigger and the planet is pushed away, In that manner, the planet goes around the sun and is a satellite.

soleil 2

Region around the sun emitting in all  direction added to what is emitted from  space  causes a different density region. If we add the gravitational force from the sun and from space, we have something similar to that drawing, showing the low density zone of gravitational force all around the sun.

graph 3
The blue line is for the gravity from space that was partially blocked by the sun and the red line is the gravity emitted by the sun. It goes to almost zero at far distance.
Depending on its speed, the planet finds the distance away where the force towards the sun equals its centripetal force. The mass and the speed of the planet will permit to find an equilibrium point and it becomes a satellite to the sun. Planets are situated in a zone from 5.80E+07 m to 6.00E+09 m.
Following the equation (F = Gmm/dd) there is a possibility to have planets between the sun and Mercury. There is no such planet there. This is because of the gravity well described here. A planet closer to the sun would be pushed away by sun radiation of gravity unless its speed was very high and its mass was bigger than Saturn or of the sun itself.
This also explains why most comets do not fall into the sun as they should because of the high pressure of the gravity emitted by the sun at close distance. That emitted gravity does push the comet’s tail away from the sun. Only a direct hit toward the sun will allow something to fall on the sun.

interesting data:

tablo gif

If we add all forces going towards a planet as coming from the sun position to forces from space pushing toward the sun, we have this picture.

graph 4

NEGATIVE VALUES: FORCES PUSHING TOWARD THE SUN

POSITIVE VALUES: FORCES PUSHING AWAY FROM THE SUN
VALUES FOR A STRAIT LINE JOINING THE SUN TO A PLANET.

Blue line = intensity of gravity emitted by the sun
Magenta line = intensity of gravity emitted by the stars blocked partly by the sun
Pale blue line = intensity of gravity coming from all regions of space pushing toward the sun.
Green line = centrifugal forces
Purple line = total forces on a planet: gravity forces plus centrifugal forces
Brown circles = possible position for planets, between 7 and 10.

N.B. The sun is at 0 on vertical axis.
N.B. The units used on vertical y-axis are for comparison of forces toward the sun.
N.B. The distances away from the sun are the exponent value in meters.
Thus 4 on x-axis is 1 x104 meters. 20 is very far, being 1 x1020 meters.
N.B. Note that the planets are situated at a distance between 5.80E10 meters and 6.00 E12 meters, very close to the values of the graph because that is where the centrifugal force is almost equal and opposite to the total forces pushing the planet toward the sun . The planet is forced to go in orbit around the sun.
N.B. This also explains why Pioneer satellite, far away from the sun is slowed down. The force of gravity from space directed toward the sun is becoming much bigger than the gravity emitted by the sun at large distance because the force from the sun is decreasing with the square of the distance. The forces from space do not decrease like that.