Speed of light
Is the speed of light always c or can it go faster?
That question is still debated today. It seems that Einstein proposed to use the speed of light as a constant being always the same in void. He could not prove that experimentally but it seems to be true for many theories. Is it possible to prove that c is the only speed for light? Maybe.
N.B. The accepted value for c is 299 792 458 m / s.
When the force between two objects each having a surplus of 1.6 E19 electrons is measured, the answer is almost 9 E9 Newtons when they are separated by a distance of one meter. The speed of light does not appear in that measure.
N.B. 9E9 means 9 exponent 9. This method is used in the text.
Also when the force is measured between two 1 meter long wires each conducting an amount of 1. 6 E19 electrons per second and being parallel to one another at a distance of one meter the answer is 1 E-7 Newtons. Again, the speed of light does not appear in that measure.
The two formulas for these forces are here
Force = almost 9E9 Newtons x charge x charge / (distance squared) for charged stationary objects. The objects are pushed away from one another.
Force = 1 E-7 Newtons x charge x charge x speed x speed / (distance squared) for two conducting wires parallel to one another and separated by one meter. The two wires are pushed towards one another.
If we try to find at what speed the pushing force would equal the attracting force using these two formulas, we obtain a speed of 299 792 458 m / s. That is the measured speed of light.
If you like formulas, it would be this
(9E9 )x Q x Q / d2 = ( 1 E-7 ) x Q x Q x v x v / d2
where Q is for charge in Coulomb, and v for speed and d for distance in meters
cancel like terms on each side of equations
v 2 = (9E9 ) / (1 E-7 ) = 9 E16.
v = 3E8 m / s.
That is the measured speed of light.
At that speed the forces cancel one another.
There are many conclusions coming from that observation.
First, it seems that if two electrons were moving parallel to one another at the same speed, if they could attain a speed of 299 792 458 m / s, they would neither be pushed toward one another or pushed away from one another. It would seem that one electron would continue its trajectory as if there was no electrons near it.
That supposes the second electron has no effect on the first one or that the effect of one electron on the second one is leaving at a speed of 299 792 458 m / s, also, therefore never be able to reach the other one because it is also going at 299 792 458 m / s.
Second, it suppose the speed of something ejected from an electron in all directions can affect another electron if the speed of the electron is less than c. Those ejected something would also go at speed c. Interesting.
Third, the insight of Einstein was right even if he could not prove that experimentally.