# Discovering gravity

Discovering gravity

By Louis Rancourt

Part 1

from NASA in November 2013. @ HANDOUT / NASA / AFP

Fig 1: Galaxy

PREFACE

When I started studying at Ottawa University at 18, we did not have internet and we had to learn from books. I was fortunate to have a summary of the properties of the planets in our solar system. My curiosity was aroused by calculating the distances, the speed and the size of the planets. I was surprised to realize that there was a relationship between these data and the inverse of the distance squared. I mentioned it to my physics professor and he just told me that it was Newton’s formula on gravity. I had discovered something we already knew!

From that moment, I wanted to know what was the nature of that strange gravity  that enables earth to orbit the sun. After 50 years of reading, experiments and a lot of thinking, I finally understood gravity. It was necessary to first understand static electricity and light …

The numerous demonstrations in class to my pupils helped me.

Here is in summary the story of my discoveries.

Fig 2:  Earth orbiting the sun

Scientists agree that current theories in physics have a deficiency because gravity cannot not be easily integrated with other theories.

In this first part, we look at experimental results that show a new approach to understanding gravity.

We explain how an object with a surplus of electrons can act at a distance.

We then examine the production of light and how light is transformed into matter and matter is transformed into light.

Finally, we take a look at the effect of light that modifies the gravitational force.

We have more than 1000 hours of scientific experiments on this effect. It seems that light, gravity and what is called electric field are closely related.

These real results prompt us to look at new explanations because nothing in the current theories foresaw what we observed.

Should the current theories be rejected? No, because in certain fields they are sufficient to calculate the expected results. Rather, we must take a fresh look at these results.

In PART 2, I start with the discoveries mentioned in PART 1  in order to explain many aspect of science that eludes the accepted theories. Since actual theories were unable to predict or explain the facts mentioned before, it is important to look at new possibilities. Maybe there are some important truth in what I explain here.

The appendix explains how this theory could be verified and validated.

Part 1

CH 1   STATIC ELECTRICITY

CH 2   LIGHT

CH 3   PRODUCTION OF MATTER OR LIGHT

CH 4   EMISSION OF LIGHT

CH 4   DECREASE OR INCREASE GRAVITY

CH 5   CONCLUSIONS

CH 6. WHY LIGHT REDUCES THE GRAVITATIONAL EFFECT

APPENDIX:

SENSITIVE SENSOR WITH STATIC ELECTRICITY

VALIDATION OF THE LAST SUB QUANTA THEORY

Chapter 1

Static electricity

During the dry winter months, you may be surprised by a static discharge when you contact a faucet.   These electric shocks are due to a surplus of electrons captured during the friction of your feet on the carpet. This type of shock is called static electricity to differentiate from electric current. If the electrons charges between the objects are similar, the small object moves away and if the charges are different, a small object gets closer.

The following drawing shows dust rising to a rod charged with electrons.

Fig 3: Static electricity

The current theory for explaining all this seems to have been spread by Maxwell with his four equations. It is said that as soon as an object has a surplus of electric charge, a field exists everywhere in the universe; this field can now influence any other charged object in the vicinity. All these places where the second object feels this charge are called the electric field. According to the definition of the field, it exists instantly everywhere in the universe. That would mean that it does not spread everywhere at a certain speed but exists everywhere, instantly. We can already see that this concept is limited because it is not possible for an electric field to extend instantly everywhere in the universe when an electron is made from light.

Can we check the limits of this concept in the laboratory? Yes and easily. But what we find is a little different from Maxwell’s concept.

Experiment 1

A simple experiment shows that the electric effect travels on a direct path from the charged object. We did the following experiments very often in my physics classes. Here’s how to demonstrate it.

One of my students wired accidentally in his electronic integrated circuit NAND gate circuit with 2 LED (Electro Luminescent Diode) and produced a detector very sensitive to an electric charge. We integrated this discovery in a device for a few experiment we wanted to perform.

Fig 4: Static Electricity Probe (circuit in appendix)

We use an ebonite rod  (a kind of plastic) charged with a surplus of electrons. This is accomplish by rubbing the fur on the ebonite rod. Many electrons jump from the fur to the ebonite rod.

This devise senses the surplus of electrons over a distance of more than 3 meters away. The green LED will activate with an excess of electrons and the red LED will activate with a deficient amount of electrons. The red LED and the green LED are activated together if the object is neutral.

The detector is placed one meter away from the charged rod. The detector can activate a LED each time the rod is moved from one side to the other. If the rod is moved at a frequency of 20 times per second, the LED activate 20 times per second as well.

As illustrated in the figure 5, we placed the charge sensitivity detector to the left; we charged a rod with a lack of electrons and placed it to the right The detector’s LED is red to indicate the presence of a lack of electrical charge nearby.

Fig 5: Lack of electron charge on the rod

In the next figure, we’ve placed place the charge sensitivity detector on the left; a rod is charged on the right with a surplus of electrons. The detector’s LED is green to indicate the presence of an electrical charge nearby.

Fig 6: The ebonite rod charged with electrons

In Figure 7, we use a rod with a surplus of electrons to activate the green LED. We then inserted a book that has no electrical charge between the sensor and the motionless rod. If the electric field is everywhere, the presence of the book in-between them should not change what the detector perceives.

Fig 7: The book in-between the sensor and the rod

When the book is inserted, the green LED immediately deactivates and the red LED is activated also at the same time. If the book is removed, the green led reactivates. It seems that the book is blocking something being transmitted from the charged rod to the detector.

How can we block something that does not move? Not possible in the accepted field theory. Therefore, the rod must be  sending something in a straight line at the speed of light; these emissions produces the effect called the electric field.

What leaves the rod is not a series of electrons.  To send electrons over a distance of one meter, it would take thousands of volts. It requires hundreds volts to make an electric arc only a few millimeters long.

The led changes to the same frequency as the change to the electric field. When someone vibrates the rod quickly, the electric field intensity varies at the same frequency that is detected by the sensor. This changing electric field is often called an electromagnetic wave. It should be called instead the pulsating field, because there is no magnetism used in the ebonite rod.

Figure 8 demonstrate ​​what was sent in all directions and that could be blocked by a simple cardboard. The white circle represents the rod with a surplus of electrons. The ‘cloud’ around it represents what the rod sent in all directions. The density decreases with distance.

Fig 8: Cardboard blocks emissions

The field theory used in physics is useful mathematically but is not a real representation of what taking place. According to current theory, the field would be everywhere, acting even on the other side of the cardboard. This experiment indicates the opposite.

The object charged with a surplus of electrons can therefore produce an effect similar to visible light, if the object is moved on one side to the other side at a rapid speed. The light emitted would have the same frequency as the movement of the object.

There is no official name yet for what the charged rod is emitting. The properties associated with the many invented names do not completely match what experiments clearly demonstrates.

Maurizio Michelini has named the effect the micro quanta in his article: A Flux of Micro Quanta Explains Relativistic Mechanics and the Gravitational Interaction.

A preferred name would be the last sub quanta to indicate that it is the smallest parts that exist without being made of something even smaller.

Experiment 2.

Here is another experiment that demonstrate an objects with a surplus of electrons emits this unknown “substance” in space.

This will require an ebonite rubbed rod on fur. The rod will quickly acquires thousands of electrons taken from the fur.

The probe feels this surplus of electrons and the green LED lights up even if the charged rod is at a distance of 3 meters or is moved towards the probe.

Fig 9: The charged rod approached the probe

Experiment 3.

When the rod is advanced towards the probe: the green LED remains on. When the rod is moved away from the probe: the green LED deactivates and the red LED will activate as in the next drawing.

Fig 10: The charged rod pulled away from the probe

Normally, the red LED activates only in the presence of an object that has lost electrons. Why does the red LED activates when the ebonite rod moves away even with a surplus of electrons?

The most plausible answer is that all the objects in the room where this experiment is done had either a surplus of electrons, a deficient amount of electrons or were neutral with as many electrons as protons. In a room, especially in winter, some objects have a surplus and others, a lack of electrons. Dry air takes a long time to neutralize electric charges on objects. This effect will create areas with a surplus of electrons and other areas with a lack of electrons. If the probe is moved to various parts of the chamber, the LED change color; the probe indicates if there is a continuous flow coming from objects charged in certain places.

When the ebonite rod did not move relative to the probe, the flow of emissions from the rod was constant and the LED did not change.

But when the electron charged rod approaches the probe, the intensity of these emissions coming from the rod increases and the green LED stays activated.

When the charged rod moves away from the probe, the intensity of this flow decreases; the probe circuit then performs as if there is a lack of electrons and the red LED is activated.

The opposite effect happens if one uses an object with a lack of electrons. At rest, the red LED lights up. If the charged rod moves away from the probe, the green LED lights up as if there is a surplus of electrons and the red LED is deactivated.

Conclusion:

These facts show that an object that has a surplus of electrons sends something in all directions, in a straight line. The further from the object, the lower the intensity of these emissions. It seems that if we triple the distance, the intensity decreases by nine times. The intensity seems to follow the following rule:  Intensity2 = Intensity1 divided by (distance) 2

A strange fact: if all electrons emit something in every directions, why is there no electric field around all objects because all objects have electrons?

When an object is neutral, with about the same number of electrons as protons, the sensor feels no electric field. It seems then that at a certain distance, the intensity of the electric fields of electrons and of protons cancel each other out.

Especially in winter, when the humidity level is low, friction between objects forces many electrons to move from one object to another. As dry air does not conduct electricity and does not readily absorb excess electrons, objects retain a charge. This is felt after walking on a carpet and our finger touches a tap. A small electric shock is felt when the electrons jump to the tap.

Let’s see some diagrams used to demonstrate Maxwell’s electric field.

If we have a surplus of electrons, we use the name given by Faraday saying that the object has a negative charge. He thought that the ebonite rod that he rubbed on the fur was losing electricity, so he placed a negative (-) sign on the ebonite. Later, we noticed that the ebonite had gained electrons but we continued to put a minus sign when there are more electrons and a plus sign when there is less electron. An historical error of Faraday.

In figures 11, the arrows indicate the path taken by a small object with a lack of electron when placed at this spot. The small object would move in the direction of the arrow, away from the charge + and will go to the negative charge. The closer the lines are, the greater the force that moves the object.

http://www.rakeshkapoor.us/ClassNotes/ElectricField

Fig 11 To visualize the force lines

The biggest problem with the next drawing is that there seems to be something going from the (+) object and curving toward the (-) object. These are called lines of force. This is wrong. The emissions go in a straight line and it seems also to go at the speed of light. Curved lines are only paths that an object would follow. In addition, nothing assures us that it starts from the object + or -. It will take other experiments to determine which one is really sending something. In the next drawing, the red arrows indicate the direction of the emissions coming from the object charged with a surplus of electrons.

http://solarwiki.ucdavis.edu/The_Science_of_Solar/1._Basics/A._Introductory_Physics_for_Solar_Application/II._Electricity/1._Charge_Carriers_and_the_Electric_Field

Fig 12 Lines of force and emissions

Fig 13: Density around an electron-charged object

In Figure 13, what is sent goes in all directions; intensity decreases with distance, as shown, to the left. The small gray pixels indicate the intensity of what is emitted and the arrows in which direction. The darker area indicates a higher density.  A charged object that moves will necessarily have a higher density of emissions ahead of it (Fig 13 on the right).

The density is greater in front of the moving object because the electric emissions move away from the charged object at the speed of light.

The intensity of this field changes depending on the direction of the moving charge.

If the charged object comes and goes, a detector placed in front perceives these intensity differences as waves having a frequency and perceives this as visible light if the frequency is about 1014 cycles per second. The field now has frequency and length properties like a light wave …

Physics books say light is an electromagnetic wave that does not need a medium support for traveling. It is true that light has a frequency and a distance between the layers, but it is not a wave like the sound wave or the water wave in a lake. This is a special case and the word wave here means something else

We will see this in more detail in the next part of this document: DISCOVERING GRAVITY, PART 2.

Problem: If the charged object continually sends something in all directions, at some point, it will be empty and can not send anything. Yet it still continues to send everywhere. How is it possible?

Every object made of atoms has billions of electrons that emit everywhere. If we could see these emissions, we would see that there are some that go in all directions as shown in the drawing on the left. These come from space around us.

Fig 14 – 15 Emissions into space

In Fig 14-15, the drawing on the right demonstrates a charged object that emits in all directions radially, that is to say, that it seems to start from the center of the object. The object therefore receives radiation from everywhere, in all directions but this object seems to emit radially outwardly. Here, these arrows are highlighted in red to show the difference in orientation. So, the charged object can emit continuously because it receives from everywhere the same thing that it emits. Some say it receives and emits photons. The description and properties of the photons is not quite as it seems and we will come back to this in the next part of this document: DISCOVERING GRAVITY, PART 2.

Really it would be necessary to make the next drawing of Fig 16 in 3 dimensions to show the intensity of what is emitted by an object that goes to the left, like this:

http://ffden-.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2010.web.dir/tony_mancuso_211webproj_Rev2/Electromagnetic%20Wave.htm

Fig 16: Emissions in space

In Fig 17, Se have a drawing to understand the variation in intensity of emissions when the ebonite rod goes from left to right. Each pixel represents what is sent if we could take a picture of a snapshot. The white circles indicate the two positions of the rod from left to right. What is sent in this way is really light that can be perceived by the eye if the frequency is high enough.

Fig 17: Emissions in space if the object moves

Chapter 2

Light

The image of Fig 18 shows the result obtained by Hertz with the sparks source and the circle-shaped probe that receives the effect on the right side of the drawing.

Fig 18: Hertz’s experiment

What is the relation between light and what is emitted by an object with a surplus of electrons? Let’s see another experiment with the probe that detects a surplus of electrons on an object.

We move an ebonite rod with a surplus of electrons and the probe lights a green LED. The frequency of movement of the charged rod is the same as the frequency seen on the probe. If the frequency of the movement changes, the frequency of the probe also changes. The probe can also be activated by sparks between two wires.

An electronic circuit can vary the frequency of sparks at higher frequencies. Cellular devices have such a circuit to produce radio frequencies.

If the frequency is in the thousand times per second, it is said that what is sent is a radio signal in the kilohertz. At higher frequencies, we have megahertz used for fm radio and televisions. Even at higher frequencies, we have the radar waves used in microwave ovens. If the frequency is around 10 exponent 14, we would have visible light.

Fig 19: The complete spectrum

Fig 20: The spectrum of light visible by humans

So, if we could move the ebonite rod at a frequency of 5×1014 hertz, we would see the yellow rod. Really the color of the visible light depends on the frequency.

In this document, the word light is used for all frequencies rather than electromagnetic wave, from the radio wave to the gamma ray. If the intensity of these emissions vary at fixed frequency, this is called radio waves or light. At very high frequency, they are called x-rays or gamma rays.
Light is simply a very fast variation in intensity of emissions from objects with an electrical charge.
For visible light, the source is always the electrons excited in the atoms of the object.

Fig 21 Diagram of light density vectors

A drawing often shows an electric field of variable intensity at 90 degrees to the direction of light. Another magnetic field this time is 90 degrees from the electric field and the direction of light. The intensity of each light layer is indicated by an arrow vector. These vectors do not represent a 90 degree vibration with respect to the direction of light as indicated by some authors, but it indicates the intensity of the field at this location. There is nothing that vibrates at 90 degrees in light. There is only a variation of intensity from layer to layer and it is this variation which has a frequency. The intensity depends on the source. It decreases with the square of the distance from the source.

N.B. A vector is a measure that takes into account quantity and direction.

The electron emitting light is itself composed of the same thing as the light emitted; we call that a last sub quanta. These last sub quanta travel at the speed of light inside the electron and therefore continually changes direction to remain in the electron. When a last sub quanta is released, it continues at the same speed without giving an opposite thrust to the electron. There is no reaction force on the electron when it sends the electric field.

To produce light, energy is needed from a system. The relation between the energy of the system and light is this:

energy = frequency x h where h is Planck constant.

Chapter 3

PRODUCTION OF MATTER OR LIGHT

If we concentrate high-frequency light and pass it through a thin sheet of gold or lead, the heavy atoms reorganize this field and change it into systems called electron and positron. We say we’ve changed light in an electron and a positron.

Fig 22: Production of matter from light

Gamma light was produced at point A, in a collision of a particle from a large accelerator. After traveling without interacting, the gamma materializes at point B by becoming an electron and a positron. The presence of an intense magnetic field curves in the opposite direction the trajectory of the two particles. They lose speed by slowing down and spiraling before stopping. This cascade of events is observed in a bubble chamber.

Thus light becomes matter named electron and a system named positron. The positron does not remain as a system for a long time because as soon as it meets an electron, it combines and the whole becomes light again.

From these transformations come the formula attributed to Einstein

Energy = mass x (speed of light)2

Energy = constant h x frequency

So hf = mc2 where h = (6.63 x10-34 J s)

It seems correct to say that solid matter and light are made of the same thing but organized differently. Likewise, what is emitted by all objects is also the same thing and it makes sense because it depends on how the internal organization of the system:

stable system = atom, electron, proton

layers of last sub quanta with a certain frequency = light,

group emitted radially without frequency = what is sent by the ebonite rod

group emitted without frequency = gravity

Chapter 4

Emission of light:

For atoms to react with light, many layers of light are needed to excite the electrons, which then give a signal that there is light. This is how a detector can ‘see’ light. Our eyes have these detectors.

If the light is too weak, the detector is not excited enough to notice it. If there are not enough layers of light striking the atoms of the detector, the detector does not notice it either; it does not mean that there is no more light sent by the source or that nothing reaches the detector.

A good example of this: if you look at a distant light point through someone’s  hair, you can see concentric circles illuminated even if the hair is not placed in a circle. Only the section of a hair that follows the exact curve of the light front will have enough excited electrons to emit light. Atoms that do not receive enough layers of light do not emit light. We often see the same effect in a windshield in the evening in the countryside while looking at a distant light source.

Fig 23: View of intense light through the long hair of Fleurange.

Fig 24: Diagram of intense light through Fleurange’s hair

The concentric blue lines on the drawing on the left represent the layers of light that arrive on the hair. The small red lines show that only the section of a hair that follows the exact curve of the light front can be quite excited so that the electrons of the hair can in turn emit light. The large number of these small curves make the circles that we see in the first picture.

The picture on the right shows how the hair was placed when Jamie took a picture of intense light through Fleurange’s hair.

If matter and light are made from the same substance, it means that matter like atoms are complex systems made up of billions of small parts; light would be made of these substances but not organized into systems. These substances would go at the speed of 3×108 m/s, in a straight line. If they have a constant variable density it gives it its frequency and is called light.

These many real observations really suggest that there is something smaller than electrons and that is what makes electrons, protons, neutrons and even light. As current theories are unclear on this subject, we have named them the last sub quanta or simply the quanta. Some call it photons but that’s not correct and we’ll see it again in the next part of this document: DISCOVERING GRAVITY, PART 2

CHAPTER 5

GRAVITY

Gravity is everywhere and is still the most controversial part of physics. Why? We have not yet been able to unite the theories of gravity with other theories.

Perhaps the main reason is that gravity is so different that we have to look at it in a new way.

We have tried several experiments to discover the nature of gravity. An experiment yielded results so surprising that it took nine months to try to find out if there was an error in the results obtained. So we continue our discovery of gravity with a description of the facts and this will bring us to a new way of looking at the universe.

Since the age of 20, I have done a lot of experiments on gravity without results. After reading what Podkletnov experimented in Finland with a high speed spinning wheel, I performed a similar experiment to block gravity with a wheel but I did not observe anything.

Fig 25: Experiment of Podkletnov

I thought that the fast spinning wheel might be deviating what makes gravity. Since light is moving a lot faster, it might be also able to deviate what make gravity.

As in Fig 26, I used a laser beam a laser beam between two parallel mirrors. The measured value of the weight of a mass of 200 g did not changed. I was back to the drawing board.

Fig 26: Laser beam between 2 parallel mirrors

At first, I used a small laser of less than 5 milliwatts sending a laminar red beam between two masses. The resulting movement was very small.

To continue, I needed a more powerful laser. My personal budget had already been exceeded, and my wife did not want to spend that kind of money unless we knew it would work.

Collège Boréal’s management agrees to purchase the 1.5 watt laser while reserving the right to publicize it if I ever discover the gravitational effect. Thank you and it was a good choice.

As in Fig 27, I used a flat laser beam instead of a point. A laminar blade of light forms a straight line when arriving on a screen. Thus we can send this flat blade of light close to a mass placed at one end of the torsion pendulum.

Fig 27: Device with the torsion pendulum

The device is a torsion pendulum made simply of a wooden rod suspended by three thin copper wires attached to the middle of the wooden rod. The rod rotates from one side to the other. A small mirror is glued in the middle on the support wires. A brass mass is placed at each end of the rod. These two masses are mobile because the wooden rod can turn on one side and the other. A bigger fixed mass is on the table, close to the moving mass.

A laser sends a laminar beam of light like a blade between the fixed mass and the moving mass. A screen blocks the light so that it does not affect the 2nd mass at the other end. A small red laser beam is reflected by the mirror and arrives on a ruler. A web camera registers the position of the small red dot on the ruler. With these readings, we then make a graph to see how the mass moves.

The entire unit was placed in a container to prevent drafts. A transparent plate was used at the front of the container to see inside. The torsion pendulum is very sensitive; it can take one day to stabilize.

Logic: If the fixed mass sends gravity to the small mass on the pendulum, then the ray of light may block some of this gravity. This would cause the small mass to move away from the fixed mass. Or so I hoped.

Observation: When light passes between the two masses, the moving mass approached the fixed mass instead of moving away.

This is the opposite of what present theories predict.

The mass gets closer instead of moving away; it demonstrates either that the fixed mass does not give gravity to the moving mass or that the light increases gravity. Maybe even a new phenomenon?

Nothing in science predicted what is observed. It would seem strange that light increases gravity because gravity seems to depend only on the quantity of mass, according to Newton’s formula.

It remains a mystery to discover. Moreover, the force on the moving mass is a vector which has a direction at right angles compared to the laser beam. The light goes in one direction and can not have a force at 90 degrees compared to its direction. The vector theory shows that this force would be zero because the cosine of 90 degrees is zero.

For 9 months, I did more than 1000 hours of observations with this laser, sometimes changing the device to improve the results. It was also necessary to check all the other things that could affect the movement of the moving mass.

Here is a list:

a) If a mass becomes charged with a few electrons, the static electricity force is so much larger than the force of gravity that it could move the mass. Maybe the laser beam acts on the air molecules and makes them charged with static electricity. It was necessary to check this but no electric charge was detected in the air. Articles on the Internet confirm that the red light of the laser does not have enough energy to ionize the air molecules.

b) Perhaps the laser beam heats the air and the movement of air close to the mass would be enough to move it. To check if the air is heated, a 0.5 degrees Celsius sensitive detector was placed at directly near the mass above the laser beam. The temperature did not change. If it changed a little, it was not enough to heat the air molecules appreciably. In addition the observed effect begins immediately when the light passes between the masses and the effect stops when the light is removed. If there were hot drafts, it would not be instantaneous.

A second attempt to see the drafts: we placed a small device made of many thin silk threads immediately behind the masses. If the air moves, the silk threads will move too. The light silk threads did not move because there was no air movement.

All the device was placed behind a transparent plate in a closed place. If someone walks or moves, the air movement does not spread to the other side where the device is. The 1.5 watt laser used was cooled by a stream of air. For this, the laser was on one side of the transparent plate and the device on the other side.

A scientist suggested placing a screen between the mass and the laser beam, so that the mass did not ‘see’ the laser light in case the light caused a slight pressure drop on the surface of the mass. The experiment was done and the mass moved anyway when we sent the beam of light.

c) The laser used has a lot of electronic parts. Maybe all these parts send an electromagnetic field to the moving mass and that would be enough to move the mass.

To verify this, a thin aluminium silver ribbon was placed at the exit of the laser beam to deflect the light 90 degrees before entering the container and going between the two masses. We started the laser and we observed the movement of the mobile mass. When everything was stable, we removed the reflective tape and the light went between the masses. The moving mass began to change right away. The effect did not come from the electronic parts of the laser.

Fig 28: Deflection of the laser beam at 90 degrees

Another way to verify this is to replace the metal masses with masses that are not affected by electromagnetic waves. We placed a large rock crystal (apatite) and a piece of rock called hematite on the pendulum. The effect was the same as with the bronze masses.

d) The earth turns. Is the movement of the earth enough to move the moving mass? The effect of the movement of the earth named Coriolis acts on the movements of air. To verify this, we placed the pendulum in different directions and in different places. The pendulum was brought to Collège Boréal in a warehouse, close to a wall leaning against the rock. The same effect was still observed.

Here is an example of the result obtained on March 17, 2009 with the moving mass and the fixed mass.

Fig 29: Result obtained on March 17, 2009

The horizontal axis indicates the time in minutes.

The broken line indicates the position of the moving mass during this time.

The pink line indicates when the light passed between the two masses

The vertical axis indicates the distance in centimeters  from the reflection of the small laser beam.

Observations:

In the beginning, without light between the masses, the moving mass comes and goes as indicated by the blue line. We put the light, and the mass is getting closer to the fixed mass quickly. This is indicated because the red dots go up on the graph.

Conclusion:

The force of gravitational attraction seems to be greater in the presence of light. This is not foreseen by any current theory.

This graphic is just one example because many tests gave the same thing. After all these experiments, we had to accept that light can change what is called gravity between two objects.

Possible explanation:

If light interacts with gravity and blocks or deflects the trajectory of gravity, then light partially blocks gravity from the outside as well. If the moving mass approaches the fixed mass, it is because the light has blocked more gravity coming from outside; having less gravity between the masses, the moving body approaches as if it were attracted by the fixed mass. Actually, it is pushed from the outside towards the fixed mass. Here is a diagram of what happens when we put a ray of light between the masses.

Without light between the masses, the moving mass is almost stable because the forces on each side are balanced. Left force = right force and down force= top force.

Fig 30: 2 masses without the presence of ray of light

The light indicated by the red arrow blocks a little the force coming from the right (the arrow which represents the weaker force is shorter) and the mass is pushed a little more to the right; it is getting closer to the fixed mass.

Fig 31: 2 masses in the presence of light ray

In March 2010, I stopped doing experiments because the result were always the same. It was necessary to find an explanation of the phenomenon. I did not know then any physical theory that could explain it. An idea came to me when relaxing in front of my fireplace: gravity might not be something sent from one mass to the other mass. The force of gravity might rather comes from space. I searched the internet and realized that others had thought about that possibility but it was not taught in physics. Fabio and Lesage had mentioned it to Newton but Newton did not want to accept these theories.

Fig 32: Drawing of Lesage on wiki:

In summary, his theory says that we bathe in an atmosphere of small parts that travel very fast; an example would be the air around us even if we do not see it. These small parts push objects in one direction or the other. Currently, you are pushed left by the air on one side and right on the other side. Since the two opposite forces are equal, you go neither left nor right. If we could block some of what pushes you to the left, then the right force would be stronger and you would be pushed to the right. It happens when there is a lot of wind. The invisible air pushes you further to one side where the wind comes from. A good example is the air that pushes the wing of the plane upward with more force than the air that pushes the wing down; so the plane is pushed up.

No one had been able to verify that theory and in the 1920s, we stopped teaching it because we had no direct evidence ( up to now…).  In recent years, some theorists have tried to revive it.

Space around us is said to contain a lot of non-visible parts like neutrinos with millions that passes through us every second. In addition, there are particles emitted by the stars and the sun that bombard us. There are also radio waves, visible light, ultraviolet light and sometimes X-rays from space. There may be other things we have not discovered yet.

If light could act on what comes from space, it could change the forces on objects. It would also mean that what makes light would be of the same nature of what pushes objects towards each other, like what causes the earth to turn around the sun; this is called gravity.

I realized that if this theory were true, it could be verified using the torsion pendulum without using a fixed mass.

To verify this theory, it is necessary to place a pendulum with torsion alone, without fixed mass nearby. Once it is stabilized, we send a beam of light close to the mass on the left and we observe if the mass moves in one direction or the other. Then we put the light on the other side to check if there really is a change in the movement of the mass.

It sounds easy in theory but one has to be patient to check it. After hundreds of hours, I had enough results that show that light can affect the mobile mass.

In the following drawing, we see that the light passes to the left of the mobile mass. A screen stops the light so that it has no effect on the 2nd mass at the other end.

Fig 33: Pendulum with laser light on the left side
Without light, it seems that the pendulum is pushed on one side and then on the other by something coming horizontally from space. That oscillation is less than few millimeters.  When the light is placed on the left side of the mass, the mass is pushed toward the left by a bigger force coming from the right because light has blocked part of the force coming from the left side.

The ray of light was sent on the right side of the mass;  the mass was pushed to the right because the light did block some force coming from the right side.

The theory is verified by an experiment that all physics labs can check with a fairly powerful laser or even with a regular powerful light. (N.B. The laser light ray must be laminar and not a small dot).

The following graph demonstrate that the mass was pushed where the force of gravity was less, on the side of the light.

Excel software is used to record the time and position of the red dot on the ruler.
This was recorded during a session. The blue curved line indicates the movement of the pendulum and the pink horizontal line indicates when the light is directed near the mass. The red line indicates the average position of the moving mass.

Fig 34: Result form July 17, 2011

When a ray of light is sent near the moving mass, without having a fixed mass nearby, the moving mass is pushed towards the light because the horizontal gravitational force is smaller being blocked partly by the light. This is the proof that light blocks the gravitational force. As soon as the light is off, the mass returns to its rest position. This is clearly seen in the following graph of April 16, 2012.

Fig 35: Result from April 16, 2012

In the graph, the north direction is at the top.

Before putting the light on, the mass slowly moved southward as the black line indicates probably because of the effect of the sun at that time. The red line at the top indicates when the red laser light was close to the moving mass. We put the light north of the mass; it goes immediately to the north and the red dot of the small laser stabilizes at 620 mm. The light is cut and the mass returns to the south as indicated by the green line.

Current theories say that the big mass is the cause of the attraction of the small mass. Newton did not make that assumption but most people believe that. It seems that the big mass actually sends gravity that attracts the small mass. If the light blocks some of the gravity coming from the big mass, then the attraction would be smaller and the small mass should move away a bit. The opposite happens, even if nothing in current theories predicted it.

We must accept the evidence and try to understand what is happening. Before starting the laser, the mobile mass was moving from one side to the other, pushed by horizontal gravitational forces. Since these opposing forces were almost equal, the movement towards the South was minimal, probably because the sun was in the south direction.

When the light beam passed on the north side of the mobile mass, some of the horizontal gravitational force coming from the north was partially deviated by light. The force coming from the south side, being bigger now, does push the mass towards the north side. This would be a possible explanation and the only one that makes sense.

With this setup, it was very difficult to compare the amount of the effect with the amount of light. We needed a new device.

A second series of experiments

A second series of experiments confirm the first discoveries. We built a box with polished aluminium sheets to reflect light in order to place objects above or below the box and measure the gravity changes of the object. That is the weight of the object.

Fig 36: View of the interior by omitting one side.

The box measures approximately 1.2 m by 1.2 m and 0.2 m high. Nine big fluorescent bulbs send 63,000 lumens into the bottom partition of the box. Mirrors at the other end send light to the partition above and so on. Light from the top partition is returned to the bottom partition. The drawing of the interior makes this clearer

Fig 37: View of the device with the scale

A mass of 100 g is placed on a wooden rod with one end resting under the box and the other end on the scale plate. Half of the force is indicated on the scale. The reading indicates the force on the mass and on the wooden support. It is necessary to multiply the reading in grams by 1000 then by 9.8 to have Newtons.

With fluorescent bulbs that yield about 63,000 lumens, we can see a significant change in gravity to make measurements. When the object is placed under the light, it loses weight.

The next graph gives the results with 35000 lumen.

Fig 38: Result of May 12, 2014

The red line indicates when the bulbs were on from 50 minutes to 300 minutes. When the light is cut off, the mass regains its weight slowly.

The most surprising fact is that an object placed above the box gains weight even if its mass does not change. Verifications are made to ensure that there is no static electric field effect or airflow caused by a change in temperature. Numerous graphs show that the more intense the light, the greater the change in gravity. This change therefore depends on the light. On the next graph, the purple line indicates when the bulbs were on and the mass placed above the box gained 0.06% weight.

Fig 39: result of May 14, 2014

That was the first experiment to ever describe how the weight of an object was increased without changing the amount of mass in it or changing the amount of matter around it. No theories have ever predicted that. Maybe because the theories were not complete…

The change in weight  in both cases took time and that was not predicted either. The reason why the mass takes time to loose weight or gain back its weight will be explained in DISCOVERING GRAVITY, PART 2.

Independent researchers had the same results as those I described.

– Libor Neumann in Prague in 2017: Experimental verification of electromagnetic-gravity effect: Weighing light and heat PHYSICS ESSAYS 30, 2 (2017)

– Clément Roberge in Sudbury, Ontario, in February 2018.

clement roberge pushingfieldtheory@gmail.com

In science, when observed new facts are verified independently by many observers, they have to be accepted as true, even if they were not predicted by mathematical formulas…

We must accept the evidence again. Light can block what causes gravity. Moreover, it means that gravity exerts a pushing force and not an attractive force as many believed. When the big 500 g mass seemed to attract the 200 g mass, in reality the 500 g did not attract the 200 g. The 500 g also blocked some of the gravitational force coming behind the 500 g mass.

This means that all objects made of atoms block the gravitational force a little. The earth blocks a lot, so much that the objects on the ground are pushed towards the ground because the force coming from the top is greater than the force coming from the bottom. The force of gravity is the ‘answer’ or the result when we add the two opposing and unequal forces. The greatest force, that coming from space, ‘wins’ and this is called gravity. The force of gravity is very different from the force of a billiard ball on another ball. We will explain this in the next part of this document: DISCOVERING GRAVITY, PART 2. It is not a space-time curvature. The theory of space-time curvature is mathematics not physics.

Another explanation may exist. It must explain how light can sometimes increase gravity and sometimes decrease it depending on where the mass is placed, above or below the box. A change of temperature can not do two opposite actions like this. Nobody to date has suggested another way to explain this.

If gravity is a force that pushes objects, what causes this force?

We now know that what seems to be the void between the stars is not empty. The space is filled with neutrinos that pass through us, billions per second. In addition there are all the radio waves that travel at the speed of light because these waves are a light with a frequency lower than the visible light. X and gamma rays are everywhere. Particles emitted by the stars advance throughout the universe. Some theories say that there are virtual particles everywhere.

Others say that there is a substance called dark matter because it is not visible. Would the pressure of all this be the source of so-called gravitational forces? Perhaps. There may still be something so small that you can not detect it. Some call it tiny strings with strange properties.

Perhaps there are even smaller things, so small that they have no dimensions, are not made of anything else, and always travel at the speed of light. It would be the smallest things that exist.  These would be the last sub quanta to use physics terms. We have used a theory of last sub quanta to explain the effect of static electric charges and the effect of light production.

P.S. The official documents of these results can be read here:

– Applied Physics Research    www.ccsenet.org/apr Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2015 issue.  http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/issue/view/1345

Further Experiments Demonstrating the Effect of Light on Gravitation

Louis Rancourt, Philip J. Tattersall

chapter 5

CONCLUSIONS:

Light can interact with what causes gravity.

Facts do not lie. This does not explain, however, how  light interacts with gravity. We need to better understand what light is. As light blocks gravity, what makes up light and what makes gravity must have something in common with their nature. It may be that light and what causes gravity is made of the same thing but arranged in different ways. Future research can help us understand it.

The force of gravity is repulsive and not attractive.

As the moving mass is set in motion when the light passes nearby, it proves that a force acts on the mass. This force is called gravity. In physics, it is believed that any change in speed or direction is caused by a force. Since it is not an attraction, it means that this force is a pushing force. In truth, these findings simplify our concept of gravity because it is very difficult to explain attraction at a distance. In the next part of this document, DISCOVERING GRAVITY, PART 2, we will see how this seemingly attractive force is caused by a pushing activity.

What does that mean? When lifting a big heavy rock, it feels the earth is attracting the rock down. Actually, the rock is pushed equally on all sides: left, right, forwards, backwards, above and below. The forces coming from below has crossed the planet Earth and part of this pushing force from below has been blocked by the Earth. So the force coming from below is smaller than the force coming from above, from space. The force from above wins and the rock goes down. We call that force weight.

We are pushed to the ground by the gravity coming from above, from space because the gravity coming from below was blocked in part by the planet earth. So atoms of the earth can block some of the gravity. So our atoms in our body are pushed by gravity and thus block some of the radiation of gravity. What is not blocked continues through us.

From the phenomena observed in the laboratory, it is asserted that matter, light and ‘fields’ are actually composed of the last sub quanta.

The 4 basic properties of these small quanta are very simple:

– they are not made of other smaller things,

– they have no dimension but have an interaction zone equal to the small length of Planck, that is to say about 1.6163 × 10-35 m.

– as they are the ultimate smaller entities, they are continually recreated close to their current position so that they seem to go at the speed of light at 3 x108 m / s

The only assumption in these properties that seem strange is the fact that they can interact if they have no dimension. I will not try to explain here how this is done. This seems to be the only ‘jump in the unknown and defying logic’ needed in that theory compared to the too many ‘jumps in the unknown and defying logic’  needed in many theories we are using now. P.S. I have given an explanation on my site and for many scientist, it seems plausible enough.

– As the last sub quanta have no mass, no electric charge and no frequency, only being, they have no energy in the sense known in physics.

The concept of charge, energy and mass will be explained in another document.

From the properties of the last sub quanta, one can probably discover all the laws of physics and explain matter and its properties at all levels. A limit is blocking us: the number of calculations to be done to describe everything because a single electron seems to be made of more than millions of millions of millions of millions of millions of these parts. (1030) In addition, these parts travel at the speed of light and interact with each other continuously.

According to Maurizio Michelini, there is approximately 3.2347×10102 (quantum / m2 second) in space. This represents a number equal to 3 followed by 102 zeros per square meter per second.

An experimental result coming from Neutrino research gives for all particles the ratio (si / mi) defined by Quantum Inertial theory in with the Micro-quantum paradigm by Maurizio Michelini.

http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/71284

Gravity is a force caused by last sub quanta

It is possible that the effect of the last sub quanta on matter is the cause of gravity. In the experiments described above, if the light ray is also made of the last sub quanta advancing in a straight line, they interfere with those that came from space and as the quantity affecting an object is now diminished, the last sub quanta coming from the other side causes the object to move towards the light. This explanation is plausible and seems to be the only valid one to date.

If gravity is the effect of incoming last sub quanta going at the speed of light from all sides, where do they come from?

The known visible universe may not be the real limit of the universe. For example, if the current universe was as big as an apple in the middle of a gymnasium (see drawing) and the whole gymnasium also contained other galaxies and stars, in a gradual continuation of all sides of what we can see, then the source of these last sub quanta that bombard universe would come from outside the ‘apple’ and also from the ‘apple’ itself. The amount that enters our universe seems a little smaller than what comes out because the universe is growing a little.

Fig 40: The possible universe …

chapter 6.

Possible explanation why light decreases the gravitational effect.

We first look at the fission of a uranium nucleus.

Each fissioning nucleus also radiates light of the order of 1022 hertz. This light is not visible and they is called gamma ray.

Fig 41: Atomic nucleus emits gamma rays

If the nucleus emits gravity and also the light of 1022 hertz, it is possible that some emissions from the nucleus are without frequency. Light would be these emissions with a frequency while gravity would have no frequency.

What is emitted by the nuclei comes from the nucleus; how come the nucleus does not eventually disappear if it continually emits gravity. It must be realized that it emits a lot but also that it receives a lot of space around it in various forms: light, gravity, neutrino, etc. The total amount of emissions is probably substantially equal to the amount of receptions  and the nucleus remains the same.

What is emitted goes at the speed of light because light is made of what is emitted and has a frequency while gravity is the same thing but emitted continuously without frequency.

Visible light is often referred to as an electromagnetic wave, but this way of naming light is a source of many errors. It would be better to say that light is a series of pulses having a certain frequency. Radio waves are also a light of another frequency.

Electrons and neutrons should not be considered as small balls of matter but rather as complex systems comprising a very large number of the last sub quanta.

What is called missing matter in the universe would then simply be the last sub quanta emitted by all matter and going in all directions.

DISCOVER  GRAVITY, PART 2, uses the concept of the last sub quanta to explain some strange phenomena in physics. This could replace the complicated theories currently in force.

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PART 2

Preface

In the first part, DISCOVERY OF GRAVITY, we have shown that the theory of last sub quanta is the best explanation for explaining the results of real experiments with gravity, the emissions of objects charged with an electrons and also for certain properties of light.

We will see how this same theory makes it possible to logically explain other aspects of the properties of matter without resorting to theories that defy logic.

Gravity plays an important role in the universe and on Earth. However the effects of gravity on Earth seem different from the effects in a galaxy because the stars on the edge of galaxies do not follow the formulas used on Earth. So someone invented strange concepts like massive black holes in the middle of galaxies to explain these differences. Others also had to invent dark matter and dark energy because present formulas cannot explain what is happening in the universe. Several facts seem to confirm these strange theories but other explanations give the same answers. Who is right?

Since humans look at the firmament, scientists wonder what this universe is made of. Theories are always refined with new discoveries. They will continue to be more precise.

1. The Universe

2 Matter

3 Space and time.

4  Gravity Has A Different Pushing Effect .

5 Solar System

6 What happens when gravity is decreased

7  The beginning of the universe

Chapter 1

UNIVERSE:

So what is our universe made of? When we observe the sky at night, we see some stars in our galaxy. Other bright spots outside the Milky Way are not stars but galaxies or clusters of galaxies.  According to some calculations, the mass of the universe would be between 1050 and 1060 kg. We know that a kilogram can contain about 6×1025 neutrons and protons. Our universe would then contain between 1075 and 1085 neutrons and protons. On Internet, one calculation says that an electron might contain 1060 small parts. In all, therefore, there would be about 10140 last sub quanta in matter. It does not count all the last sub quanta that travel in space … According to Maurizio Michelini, there is approximately 3.2347×10102 (quantum / m2 sec) in space.A Flux of Micro Quanta Explains Relativistic Mechanics and the Gravitational Interaction.  So to summarize, the last sub quanta form systems called atoms: electrons, protons, neutrons. Matter forms stars, planets, parts of the universe. Last sub quanta traveling without frequency would be the source of the gravitational force. As gravity is not a special force that attracts but the net result of opposing forces coming from everywhere in space, we no longer need the famous theory of dark matter in the center of galaxies. This dark matter is necessary in attractive gravity theory but is no longer necessary if gravity is not an attractive force.

Since 70% of the galaxies are spiral-shaped and resemble a flattened disk with a large amount of stars in the center, it has been found that stars far from the center do not obey Newton’s law of gravity. To explain this exception, we invented dark matter that would be in large quantities in the middle of the galaxy to provide a bigger mass. The intense force of gravitational attraction of this dark matter would force the stars far away to obey Newton’s law. However there is as yet no direct evidence that this dark matter exists. It was invented to explain an anomaly of current theories.  The pushing gravity theory explains the behavior of stars without going against the laws of Newton. Forget the intense gravitational attraction coming from the center of the galaxy. Consider instead that the gravitational forces on all stars in the galaxy comes from all regions of space. That force pushes all stars toward the center of the galaxy. But the forces coming from space and going through the dense centre of the galaxy are partially blocked by all these atoms. The force reaching the stars on the periphery of  the galaxy are then stronger coming from outside compared to the forces coming from the direction of the center of the galaxy.  So the stars far from the center do not obey Newton’s law if these forces were attraction forces .

The next drawing demonstrates the orbital speed of stars or gas in the galaxy.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Courbe_de_rotation_des_galaxies

Fig1: velocity of stars

Rotational curves of a typical spiral galaxy: in A predicted curve, in B observed curve. The difference between the two curves is attributed to dark matter. Here is another text that explains the problem of dark matter. http://www.astrosurf.com/luxorion/univers-cinematique-galaxies2.htm

Le problème de la matière noire.

On ne peut évidemment pas passer sous silence la question de la matière noire et de l’énergie sombre qui semble à toute évidence contrecarrer la dynamique newtonienne à l’échelle galactique et au-delà. Dans le cas de la rotation galactique, on a besoin de cette hypothèse. En effet, la vitesse de rotation des disques des galaxies spirales varie entre 100-300 km/s, rarement plus (cf. l’étude de van der Kruit et Freeman, 2011).

Comparées aux 300000 km/s de la lumière, le rapport v/c est très faible, et dès lors la mécanique de Newton et la gravitation peuvent être appliquées aux galaxies. Pour en avoir la preuve, il suffit de constater que les galaxies présentent des disques stellaires dont le profil lumineux décroît exponentiellement. Nous savons également que la lumière trace directement la matière baryonique. On peut en dériver le champ gravitationnel du disque stellaire. On peut calculer ensuite la vitesse des orbites circulaires dans ce champ pour obtenir la courbe de rotation des galaxies.

Il faut ensuite regarder si la courbe de rotation diminue trop rapidement quand on la compare aux mesures du rapport de masse de lumière (M/L). Comme nous l’avons expliqué à propos des problèmes du modèle cosmologique Standard, si la courbe de vitesse reste constante à grande distance du noyau, on en conclut qu’il y a une 3e composante de matière inconnue tel que le “halo sombre”. C’est de l’observation, des faits que peuvent nous confirmer tous les astrophysiciens spécialisés dans la dynamique des galaxies en commençant par Babcock, Rubin et  consorts.

The visible universe is limited to the light that comes to us from space. If our universe is a certain age, the light that comes from far away has not reached us yet and we cannot see these distant stars. The latest discoveries say that our universe seems to expand like an inflated balloon. It means that beyond what we see, there could also be matter radiating in all directions, towards our universe. The force of this radiation toward our universe is not great enough to diminish the volume of our visible universe. The radiation from our universe affect all matter and pushes matter toward outside the universe. That force being a little bigger than the radiation coming in and pushing matter inward has the effect of an expanding universe.

Our galaxy seems to be moving towards a place full of galaxies. However by measuring the total mass of these galaxies, we detect that there is not enough mass at this place to explain the movement of our galaxy using the concept of gravitational attraction from those galaxies far away. That is explained easily if we use the concept of the pushing effect rather attraction.  Then we would have fewer stars on the side opposite to the movement of our galaxy. Each star blocks a little gravity and radiates it. If on one side of the galaxy there are fewer stars than the other, the gravity is blocked a little less. We have even discovered a large, nearly empty space on the other side as predicted by our theory that gravity is not an attraction. These results are better explained by admitting that gravity is the result of opposing forces coming from space.

Here is an extract from widipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Attractor

Fig. 2 big attractor

The Great Attractor is an apparent gravitational anomaly in intergalactic space at the center of the local Laniakea Supercluster, in which the Milky Way is located, in the so-called Zone of Avoidance that is notoriously difficult to observe in visible wavelengths due to the obscuring effects of our own galactic plane. This anomaly suggests a localized concentration of mass thousands of times more massive than the Milky Way.

CHAPTER 2

Matter

ATOMS

We are familiar with visible matter such as fruits, stars, our bodies. All agree that solid matter is made of small units called atoms.

These atoms are made of small parts. Atoms are complex systems with specific properties. It seems the parts that make the atoms are also complex systems made of even smaller parts. We can detect small things called neutrinos. There are billions passing through us every second but it is rare that a neutrino touches us. It’s because our atoms seem empty for these neutrinos. They are so small that they pass through us without touching anything.

To get a better idea of ​​the atoms that compose us, we calculate the volume of a girl of 50 kg if the electrons of each atom were stuck on the nucleus. The person would occupy only 1.3 x10-12 m3. In other words, it would take 1.3 million million people to occupy one cubic meter. We see that we is almost a perfect void. It is for this reason that neutrinos can pass through us without touching us.

Some devices can even show so much detail that we see spheres that make up the surface of a metal. Here, IBM has deposited 35 xenon atoms on a metal to write IBM.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_(atoms)

Fig 3: atoms on a metal sheet

In 2009, another IBM team photographed a nanographene molecule; we see how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. We can see these photos and more on internet.

http://e1.physik.uni-dortmund.de/ltstm_eng.htm

fig 4: a nanographene molecule

How are atoms made of ? By examining their properties, we arrive at certain models of the structure of the atom.  Here are two different models that can be found on the Internet:

http://www.mediaanddestiny.org/a-meaningless-universe/ http://www.chs.d211.org/science/hausered/Chemistry/Inside%20an%20Atom.htm

Fig 5: models of the atom

It is clear that the atoms themselves are made of several parts. These parts are made of smaller parts. Is it possible that some small parts are not made of other smaller parts yet? Perhaps and this is what Planck’s constant seems to indicate. When we measure electricity, we always get measurements that are multiples of something very small that we call the electron. There are no electron fractions.When we measure a crowd of people, we have a number of units called a person. There is no half a person…In the same way it is possible that the smallest thing that exists is of the dimension of Planck’s constant h because all the measures are multiples of h when we go to the level of the atoms and again to smaller levels. We name them the last sub quanta. The constant h is very small, about 6.6 x10-34 joules-seconds. N.B. This notation is how small numbers are written in science. For example, to write half a millimeter, one writes 0.5 x10-3 m because x10-3 means 1 divided by 1000. The number of 0 in 1000 is the same as the (x10-3). A millimeter is 1000 times smaller than a meter. The size of a hydrogen atom is then written like this: 1.06×10-10 m. It would take 6 x1024 constant h to arrive close to the diameter of the hydrogen. 6000000000000000000000000000. These atoms are everywhere in the universe. They are the basis of matter we know on earth. Atoms seem to be formed in stars like our sun and by exploding supernova.

It seems that matter exist in several forms: atoms, light, fields. It seems that all this is made of something very small that we called the last sub quanta.

The last sub quanta.

The properties of the last sub quanta were described in Part 1.

As all last sub quanta are not made of anything else, they have no mass. The mass of a system would then be a property of the system and not of the last sub quanta itself. Mass is measured on earth in several ways:

– By a comparison of weight with an object of known mass or by the force exerted by gravity on the object or by what is called the inertial mass. This is the principle used by scales.

– The other measure is indirect because one observes the interaction of the object with another object in movement and the change of movement makes it possible to calculate what is called the energy of the object. We then deduce the inertial mass. This mass therefore depends on two factors of the system that are measured: the quantity of last sub quanta in the systems and the internal organization of the system. A cannonball that rotates rapidly on itself will have a greater interaction than the one that advances without rotating. It’s as if its mass is bigger because of its rotation. In addition, some experiments show that a small system that advances near the speed of light acts as if it had a larger mass because of its speed. That is also because systems interact differently during the collision when they go very fast.
Emission and reception:

In summary, systems (such as atoms, stars, apples, etc.) are composed of small parts that interact with each other. Systems do not go at the speed of light but what makes them go at the speed of light. The systems thus emit these parts in all directions and receive them from space around them. When they give more than they receive, they end up breaking up, like when a star explodes. A balanced system emits substantially the same amount of last sub quanta that it receives.

We feel something similar when going outside in winter because we receive less than we emit and our total temperature drops rapidly. Note that temperature is the sum total of the speeds of the parts that make up our body.

Fig 6: emissions by an object

When a system emits last sub quanta with a certain frequency, that emission is light; it is called radio wave, visible light, ultraviolet, and so on. This seems to be the case for electrons around the nucleus. What is sent seems to form a spiral close to the nucleus, but at distance, it looks like circular waves as found on a lake. These spiral emissions are the source of  the frequency of light ‘wave’. If the system transmits continuously, the result is called a field. For a neutral object without electric charge, it is called gravitational field. For an object having an unbalanced electrical charge, it is called an electric field. An object moving in this electric field perceives this field as that coming from a magnet and it is called magnetic field although it is only an electric field.  If a system emits an impulse of last sub quanta without frequency, one obtains solitons. These are groups of last sub quanta going at the speed of light. They have great difficulty interacting with the matter because they have no frequency to resonate with the matter system. It seems that neutrinos are made like that.

Light Light is another form of matter having a constant speed and being able to be transformed into solid matter. Solid matter can also be transformed by emitting visible or non-visible light as we saw in the previous part of this document. Since light has a property of frequency and distance between each light layers, it is tempting to compare light to physical waves such as sound. But sound is only a movement of particles in the air that propagates with a certain speed. The hotter the air, the faster the air molecules go and the faster the sound is spread. Without air, there is nothing to spread the sound, so there is no sound. Light is not propagated by something like sound; light advances in the void between stars. Someone have suggested that an invisible substance was everywhere in space and that light would be a wave propagated by this substance. When a wave advances in a substance each part of the wave must move and hit the next part to propagate the movement. The stiffer the substance, the faster the movement. Sound travels faster in water than in air and faster in steel than in rubber. To have a speed of 300,000,000 meters per second, the vacuum should be made of a substance much harder than steel … And yet we move into space on earth effortlessly, surely not in a substance  harder than steel. Light traveling at  300 000 000 meters per second does not seem to be a wave transmitted by a substance but something that advances directly at this speed.  As light has a finite speed and a certain frequency, we can talk about the wavelength by analogy even if we know that light is not a wave like sound wave. Light is rather made of a series of layers whose density varies in space; this density is caused by what is sent by an electrically charged object that moves at a certain frequency. When a charged object does not move and emits in all directions, one says that there is a constant electric field around the object and one can detect the presence of this field. When the charged object moves at a certain frequency, the emissions are called light because the density varies continuously.

Photon:

It is said that light sometimes acts as a wave and sometimes as a particle, in the case of the photoelectric effect. It is said that light is a photon. Maybe that explanation is not complete.

To acknowledge the presence of light, one needs a sensitive detector that reacts in the presence of light. If the light is very weak, one needs a very sensitive detector but if the light becomes weaker, nothing can detect it. It seems that what is called a photon is the smallest amount of detectable light. For example, if a laser beam strikes a blank page, there is a red dot on the page and if the light beam is cut quickly, the dot appears and disappears on the page. If the light ray is shorten so that the ray is one meter long, the point is still visible. If the ray is shorten more and more, at a certain length, the point no longer appears because the atoms of the paper can not be excited enough to react by emitting red light dot. This does not mean that there is nothing that strikes the paper, it means that the quantity is not enough to excite the receiving atoms. The photon would then be the minimum amount to be able to detect this light.

So, light is neither a particle in the sense of the electron or the proton, nor a wave like the sound but the effect of electric charges which have a frequency and which spread in space at the speed of light because it is light.

It seems more accurate than saying that a photon is the unit of light, much like the electron which is the unit of electricity as explained before. Indeed, according to the energy formula of the photon: energy = 6.6 x 10-34 Joule-second times the frequency, (E = hf) if photons were the unit of light, that would mean photons would be of different sizes and energies because the energy of light depends on its frequency. We would have small photons for red light and a larger photon for blue light. That does not make sense. The unit of light is the quanta named h in the formula E = h f.

When two rays of light of the same frequency and out of phase meet on a surface, they seem to be destroyed as if the light has disappeared. What happens is that the density at this point becomes constant and the detector is not excited because it no longer feels any frequency. There is no more resonance and so it seems that there is no more light. The sensor acts as if there was no light received.

The best comparison is the meeting of twowaves on the water where the trough meets the top of the wave and the water there seems calm. The water does not disappear but no longer has the frequency of the wave.

Fig 7: intensity of light represented by a curve.

The numbers 0 1 2 1 0 2 represent the intensity. When two lights are superimposed, they will have a constant intensity. A detector can not feel that there is light and the detector remains off.

Fig 8: two lights out of phase

Field:Another form of matter is commonly called a field; however the field of last sub quanta differs from the classical field theory.

The gravitational field that helps to hold the moon around our planet is a form of matter because it comes from matter and also travels at the speed of light. It does not have the property named frequency because the density (or how many parts per volume) is almost constant. This density decreases when one moves away. The further the astronaut is from the ground, the less is his weight because the effect of the earth gravity decreases with the square of the distance. At a distance of twice farther, the object receives 4 times less influence and the weight is then 4 times smaller.

Fig 9: decreasing with the square of the distance

This drawing shows that moving away from the source on the left, the surface increases squared. If we continue the drawing we will have 16 squares because 4 x 4 = 16 and the intensity would be smaller in each square. There is also something named electric field around a static object that has an unbalanced electrical charge.This field is emitted by matter and also travels at the speed of light. It does not have the property named frequency because the density (or how many parts per volume) is almost constant. This density also decreases with the square of the distance. In summary, light and fields are very different compared to matter, liquid, gas or plasma (as the sun) because visible matter does not seem to go at the speed of light. If we could see inside matter, inside the atoms, we would probably see that the parts that compose matter go at the speed of light. These fast parts form complex systems called electrons, protons, neutrons. If we add the speed of the systems to the speed of the parts that compose them, we would probably have the speed of light. If these parts are always going at the speed of light, it is normal that once they leave the systems, they still go at the speed of light. This is why a lamp that advances and sends light, the speed of the lamp is not added to the speed of the light that leaves the lamp.

CHAPTER 3

Space and time..

Imagine a single point that exists throughout the universe and nothing else. We can not say that it moves because there is no point of reference to see its movement. There is no space between this point and another because it is alone in existence. So there is no space or speed.

Fig 10: in the empty space

Let’s place another point nearby. Automatically, there is a space between them. What is called space is not a physical reality but a concept in the intelligence of the thinking being who looks at these two points. For the concept of space to exist, there must be at least two points in the universe. If these two points are always at the same distance from each other, we can not say if they have movement because they could move at the same speed in parallel line and the distance between them would not change. We can not talk about speed then but only space between them. If we see the distance between them change, then we can say that at least one moves relative to the other. We just had the concept of speed. Let’s place a third point that also moves at the same constant speed; we can predict the distance between them as they move away by inventing the concept of time.

Fig 11: 3 objects in space

Speed ​​equals distance traveled per second or minute. Time is the distance divided by the speed. If the speed is one unit, we can exchange the time by the distance because the time is the distance divided by the speed. Similarly it is sometimes said that the distance between two cities is two hours because it implies that we travel by car at a speed of about 100 km / hour. We also measure the distance between the stars in light-years. The light year is a time that corresponds to the distance traveled by the light in one year.

Time does not exist if in the universe there is only one point or two points always at the same distance from each other. Time is only a concept, an idea that can predict the distance between objects that move. Time has no existence as such, and outside the physical universe we can not talk about it.

The physical space of which we have the three-dimensional concept: top, forward and side. If an object moves in this space the concept of time appears but time does not exist as such. When we say that time is a fourth dimension, it is only a mathematical concept and it has no existence in itself. In mathematics, we can do equations and calculations with more than three dimensions. What is called the exponent as 43 meters3 represents three dimensions. 43 meters2 represent two dimensions. 43 meters5 represent five dimensions. Similarly, a mathematical equation with two unknowns, x and y, for example, can be represented by two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The unknowns x and y are parameters of the equation. We can have several parameters that affect the response. Ten parameters can then be seen as ten dimensions even if ten physical dimensions do not exist.

Chapter5

GRAVITY HAS A DIFFERENT PUSHING EFFECT .

Gravity acting on one object does not push the object like a billiard ball hitting another ball. What cause gravitational forces penetrates the nucleons and becomes part of the nucleon system and the whole system is seemed to have reorganizes itself a little further. The following drawings attempt to visualize what happens inside a proton going up into space. Space is filled with last sub quanta going in all directions at the speed of light. The proton is seen as a stable and balanced complex system made of billions of last sub quanta whose total speed is always that of light. This is true if we add the internal velocity in the proton with the velocity of the proton in space.

In the next drawing, the proton receives last sub quanta coming from all sides; these receptions are equal on average on each side. The direction of the proton remains the same and it always reorganizes himself upwards, retaining on average the same number of last sub quanta in him. The proton emits about the same number as those that penetrates. The incoming last sub quanta are integrated into the proton system. This system evolves and reorganize itself continuously and it gives the impression of an object going up.

Fig 12: a proton advance upward

For an external observer, it seems that the last sub quanta that come from below have exerted a pushing force on the proton. In reality, there is no force but an internal reorganization that causes the total speed of the proton system to change because the number of vectors of the last sub quanta going up has increased. Gravity acts in the same way by rearranging the nucleons that are still moving with respect to space. This is not a push or an attraction but a change in the nucleon systems. So there is no temperature increase as Feynman predicted,

Interactions of quanta with matter.

If we calculate the ratio of the cross-section of the nucleus of an atom to that of the atom, we have a ratio of about 1 in 10,000,000. So about 1 neutrino out of 107 has a chance to hit a nucleus. Since they are neutral, the effect is minimal. If a last sub quanta is smaller than a neutrino, then how do they interact with a kernel?

To understand this, it is necessary to go down at the very small level of the nucleus and not to compare at the macroscopic level, our level. The proton and the neutron are not steel balls that can be pushed by  another ball like on a pool table. They are complex systems, resembling clouds rather than balls. The parts that compose them travel at the speed of light and interact in the nucleon. Since there is no hard surface to reflect when a quanta comes to the surface, it continues in the system.

If nucleons were not receiving as much as it losing, they would disappear. We know that the proton is stable, it does not disappear. So the proton must on average receive as much as it emits.

The proton is always moving with respect to space. If the reception from all sides is on average equal, it rebuilds itself while continuing its momentum. If receptions from all sides are not equal, it rebuilds itself  by continuing in the opposite direction. What gets into the nucleon is now part of the system and does not pushes on the system. A bit like 10 fish that join a ‘cloud’ of a million fish. Arrivals do not grow on the ‘cloud’ but are now part of the group. The direction of the group does not change much with this small number of finishes. It would be different if the input was bigger.

We must also always visualize that what goes in the space in all directions makes that the effects are not caused by a single interaction but by the difference of opposite interactions if the amount of one side is different from the other . If the quantities are on average equal, the effect is cancelled as two equal and opposite vectors cancel each other out. It is fair to say that gravity does not push and attract, but changes the direction of nucleon motion of an object with respect to space by becoming a part of the nucleons and interacting with the parts of the nucleons.

chapter 4

Solar system

The sun blocks some of the emissions from all directions in space. Because of this blockage, there is a spherical area around the sun where there is a smaller density. At a certain distance, this effect is almost nil and the density is similar to the average coming from space. In Fig 13, each gray pixel represents a quanta going at the speed of light. The lighter area close to the sun represents places where the sun has blocked emissions coming from the other side.

Fig 13 emissions from space blocked by the sun

In fig 14, the graph shows almost zero last sub quanta coming from behind the sun and going toward a planet.

Fig  14: quantity of emissions from the space crossing the sun and blocked by the sun

However, the sun also emits in all directions. The density of these emissions decreases with the square of the distance as shown on the next drawing.

Fig 15: Emissions from the sun pushing objects away

Fig 16: Emissions from the sun

This graph shows that far from the sun the last sub quanta from the sun have about the same density as those from space and the effect is almost nil. When we superimpose the emissions coming from the sun with the decrease of the density caused by the absorption of the sun, we obtain this: at a certain distance from the sun, we have a spherical zone where the density of each direction side is the same so that an object at this point is not pushed from one side to the other. This zone is like a gravitational well because objects trying to get closer to the sun are pushed away by the emissions from the sun itself. If the object tries to get away from the sun, the emissions from space pushes the object toward the sun. Depending on the speed of the object, the centrifugal force will make the object find a stable orbit around the sun by opposing the forces pushing the objects toward the sun.

Fig 17: Gravitational well around the sun

According to Maurizio Michelini, there is approximately 3.2347×10102 (quantum / m2 second) in space. This represents a number equal to 3 followed by 102 zeros per square meter per second. We call this number the unit of emissions in space.

Quantum Inertial theory in conjunction with the Micro-quantum paradigm by Maurizio Michelini.http: //www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php / apr / article / view / 71284

We know that planets of our solar system are between 5 x 1010 m and 6 x 1012 m, we give a value of 1 unit for the emissions from space, (in green on the following graph); this is located in the negative part of the graph to indicate that these 3.2347×10102 (quanta / m2 dry) are pushing the planets towards the sun.

In addition there are the emissions coming from the sun towards the planets, which decrease with the square of the distance.

Far from the sun, around 1020 m, these emissions are no longer felt because the density is the same as what comes from all directions. We give a value of .00125 essions unit of the space which crosses the sun towards the planets (in pink) and which are partly blocked by the sun.

Fig 18: Total picture of the forces on the planets

If the sun blocks 0.0025 emissions from space that passes through it, we have the blue curve on the graph. At a distance of 1020 m, space emissions are at maximum. The total force (in pale blue) is in negative region on the y-axis as it is a pushing force towards the sun. There is another force that keeps the planet out of the sun: the centrifugal force caused by its speed in orbit. As it depends on the planet, this force is not indicated on the graph. The total of these forces keeps it in stable orbit. The zero on the y-axis here corresponds to the position of the sun. The x-axis represents the exponent of the distance in meters. For example, at position 10 on the x-axis we have the distance of 5×1010 meters for the planet Mercury.

Closer to the sun, between 0 and 1010m, the planets would be pushed away from the sun. Further, 1013 m and more, the planets would also be pushed away from the sun. There is an area around the sun where the planets can be in orbit. This area is between 1010 m and 1013 m.

 distance from sun (radius r) mass gravity forces = centrifugal force in meters in kg Gmm/r2 F = m v v/r Mercury 5.80E+10 3.30E+23 1.30208E+22 1.30E+22 Venus 1.10E+11 4.87E+24 5.34223E+22 5.34E+22 Earth 1.5E+11 5.98E+24 3.54674E+22 3.55E+22 Mars 2.30E+11 6.42E+23 1.61086E+21 1.61E+21 Jupiter 7.80E+11 5.69E+26 1.24137E+23 1.24E+23 Saturn 1.40E+12 5.69E+26 3.85332E+22 3.85E+22 Uranus 2.80E+12 8.68E+25 1.46954E+21 1.47E+21 Neptune 4.50E+12 1.02E+26 6.68581E+20 6.69E+20 1 kg rock 7.00E+03 5.98E+24 1.62E+37 1.62E+37

Fig 19: The planets

N.B. Excel notation is used here: 1.5E + 11 means 1.5 x 1011 meters. or 1500000000000 meters.

We see why there are no planets in stable orbit between Mercury and the sun because the speed would be too great to stay in orbit at this location. A 1 kg rock would have to go at the speed of light to have a stable orbit at 7 km from the sun.

Fig 20 – 21  solar system

//www.techexplorist.com/gaia-generates-richest-star-map-galaxy-beyond/13797/

Fig 21 solar system

These drawings follow show why there is no objects orbiting close to the sun and far away after 1013 m as predicted on graph of fig 8.

Chapter 7

What happens when we decrease gravity.

A 1 kg cylinder is placed on a table. At the equator, all objects go East at about 375 m / s because the earth goes around every 24 hours. In 24 hours, at this speed, the object will have made a complete tour of the earth and will have returned almost to the same place. The drawing shows this object suspended on an elastic band. Because of gravity, the object has a weight of 9.8 Newtons. This force stretches the elastic band down and the elastic must exert a force of 9.8 N upwards. Thus, the object remains at the same height above the table. In this example, it is 10 cm from the support surface.

Fig. 22 suspended object .

The speed of the object is always 375 m / s to the east because the earth turns. If no force was exerted on the object, it would have continued in a straight line. The next drawing that is not to scale shows that the object would move away from the surface of the table and would be in space after a few minutes.

Fig. 23: object moves away from the earth

If the object after one second has traveled 375 m in space and is still above the table, it is because it has two directions in its speed. A horizontal direction that has a value of 375 m / s and the other vertical which has a value of about 5 m / s. In physics this is demonstrated by arrows called vectors.

EAST

Fig 24: vectors of the speed towards the east

The arrow that is angled downward is called the resulting speed when the two speeds are added together. The large east arrow represents the speed of 375 m / s and the down arrow represents the speed of 5 m / s. This drawing is not to scale because we would not see the small arrow down. If we send a lot of light horizontally over the object, its weight decreases and the force of the elastic brings it back a little higher, about 20 cm. This means that the downward velocity vector has decreased a bit and the resultant vector has a smaller angle.

Fig 25: vectors of the speed towards the east

We continue to send light above and gravity decreases. The object is now 30 cm

from the table, then 40 cm and finally 50 cm. He does not climb higher because he is in a state of levitation. Its final velocity vector makes it float above the table and the elastic could be removed because it no longer exerts force upwards. It is said that the object is in orbit above the earth or is geostationary.

Fig 26+ suspended object

When the light source is closed, the downward force changes the angle of the resulting speed and gravity returns as before. It takes a little while. If we let the light over the object longer, the force of gravity coming from below will lift the object and it will stick to the ceiling and we can close the light. Its velocity vector is pointing upwards. It comes back down only when the speed vector is pointing down. The mere fact that the object remains in the state of levitation in the absence of light proves that the theory of the curvature of space time is incomplete. According to the theory of curvature of space, the object would regain its gravity immediately.

Chapter 8

The beginning of the universe

The Big Bang theory assumes that at the beginning there was only one small point where all matter was concentrated. After an explosion of this point, the parts would have gone in all directions. It is the cosmic inflation in which a region of the universe has had a very violent expansion phase which would have allowed it to grow by a considerable factor: at least 1026 and probably immensely more of the order of 101 000000, or more, according to some models. This means that matter was going faster than light …. There is no mention anywhere about what force could have given such acceleration. Some say that space itself has grown; but space is only a concept of the thinking being who looks at objects that are separated by a certain distance. Space has no existence outside matter.

A force called gravity would have attracted matter and the parts would have grouped together, forming larger systems and eventually forming the atoms we know. These atoms would have grouped and would have formed the stars, the planets. The biggest problem of this theory is that there must be a force of attraction called gravity. If this force is not an attraction, the theory no longer holds.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universe

Fig 27: Big Bang

If the Big Bang theory is not possible, how did our universe appear? A simple answer is possible if we admit the existence of the last sub quanta which are at the base of matter, light, electricity, gravity and other physical phenomena.

–  We know that the matter is made of electrons, protons and neutrons and that these can be produced in the laboratory with high frequency light.

–  We know that all light frequencies are actually successive layers of billions of quanta emitted by a source.

–  We know that in stars, helium atoms are produced by the fusion of smaller atoms and that big atoms are also made by the fusion of smaller atoms.

– We see in the universe of hydrogen clusters that regroup and make stars.

So It is easy to predict that by having an immense quantity of quanta going at the speed of light they can interact with each other. We often see air molecules set in motion and form small or very large vortices like cyclones.

In the same way, the very large number of quanta interacting with each other sometimes form more or less stable groups. A group named electron and a group called proton seem to be so stable that we do not know what their half-life is. This is because they interact with what happens from space using these quanta and integrating them into their system. They remain stable because they emit on average as much as they receive.

These systems are grouped to form the other atoms and so all known matter is made. In addition, the emissions of these systems are at the origin of what is called gravitational field and electric field and also of fields having a frequency that named electromagnetic wave or simply light. The formation of these systems is continuous in space and is observed by telescope.

Since light is slow compared to the size of the universe, only one section of the universe can be seen. The quanta that come from everywhere often come from outside of what is known as our universe. Here is a drawing that gives us a better idea how the last sub quanta are in space. You can see the animation on You Tube under the name of dsq of Louis or go directly to

https://youtu.be/FMnQQqKjqU0

Fig 28: example of last sub quanta

Each small dot represents a quanta going at the speed of light. Each quanta can change direction if it meets another quanta and change direction . Here, we do not see a zone that manifests a frequency. Of course, the speed here is not the speed of light. We can see the animation without viruses.We can also see the other two videos. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BY1hvSLuO3A&feature=youtu.be#t=157.970222https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecYS0NUZet4&t=3shttps://youtu.be/mo9lGnRtijI

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Appendix:

A detector that is sensitive to static electricity. Uses a CMOS 4000 chip dual 3-input NOR gate and inverter and makes this circuit. When the detector is near an object with excess electron, the green LED lights up. Red LED will light up when it is near an object that has lost electrons. Both light up when the object is neutral. The resistors are 320 and 1200 ohms. This circuit was mistakenly discovered by a student and it works very well.I used this chip: HEF4000BPB

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This book is a popularization of the discoveries that led to the development of the theory of the last sub quanta. These sub quanta would be what composes the atoms, light, the electric field, gravity, in short, our universe. I could cite many references that support this document and also many that prove that it is not possible. I only quote my discoveries and leave the reader  to decide… The scientific reports can be read at:

Effect of light on gravitational attraction  by Louis Rancourt

Article in Physics Essays 24 (4): 557- • December 2011DOI: 10.4006 / 1.3653936and on Applied Physics Research; Flight. 7, No. 4; 2015,

Further Experiments Demonstrating the Effect of Light on Gravitation

Louis Rancourt, Philip J. Tattersall

Louis Rancourt, 2018

louisrancourt@gmail.com