GRAVITY PUSH OR PULL
A simple experiment can solve that question definitively. Here it is:
Place an open ended box ( blue) horizontally over a table.
Place an object ( yellow) having exactly 1 Newton of gravitational force above the open ended box .
The force is = G x (mass of the object ) x (mass of the earth and everything under the object) divided by (the distance between the center of the object and the center of earth) x (the distance between the center of the object and the center of earth), where G is the gravitational constant.
This formula from Newton is F = G m x m / d x d
Some theories suggest that energy can be converted into mass called equivalent mass using the formula: energy = mass times the square of light speed.
Question: Maybe the mass equivalent of light is able to cause that change.
The picture on the left side is without a ray of visible red light passing in the open ended box and the picture on the right side is with a strong ray of visible red light passing in the open ended box .
Since the frequency of visible light is in the range of 10 exponent 14, we can calculate the mass equivalence of light using these 2 formulas:
energy = hf and energy = mcc
h= Planck’s constant (6.6 exponent -36), f = frequency, m= mass, c = 3 exponent 8 m/s
then hf = mcc
then m = hf / cc = about 10 exponent -36 Newton. This is almost a million time smaller than the mass of a single electron.
That means the weight force on the object will not change enough for any actual instrument to sense the change when light is present or absent in the open ended box .
If gravity is a force coming from earth to the object, then the weight should not change because the values of masses and distance never changed.
In the space-time theory about gravity, the space-time curvature depends on the masses.
If gravity is a space-time curvature, then the weight should not change because the values of mass and distance never changed.
If gravity is a kind of a field, then the weight should not change because the field never changed.
Experimental results: when the light beam passes in the open ended box , the weight increases enough to be measured by a standard laboratory balance. This has been verified many times since 2008 and the resutls were published in 2 different papers. ( see note )
Because the weight increases, that means the total forces acting on the object is now different than before. If there is a force on the object coming from above, that force did not change because nothing above the object was changed.
If the forces coming from below changed, then the total net force did change. The force coming from below has to be smaller than before. That proves that light did change the force coming from below. That force has to be a pushing force to conterbalance the force from above. That means the gravitational force has to be a pushing force and not an attractive force. The gravitational force is the result of adding the forces from all directions. The force coming through earth is smaller than the force coming from above and that result is called weight.
Another fact from this experiment is that light does interact with gravity, suggesting a new approach at looking at the nature of both gravity and light.
note: The online version is free access and download.
Applied Physics Research www.ccsenet.org/apr Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2015 issue.
under Further Experiments Demonstrating the Effect of Light on Gravitation
Louis Rancourt, Philip J. Tattersall