SIMPLY, THE UNIVERSE
by Louis Rancourt
Since we have the Internet, there are so many contradictory theories and explanations that it is difficult to disentangle all that.
We shall see facts which suggest plausible explanations. From these facts, we will see how our universe is made and how it works.
The two discoveries that suggest a new model are the effects of light on gravity and the possibility of blocking what is called the electric field.
After having taught science for 50 years and more and having made multiple experiments, we have arrived at a conception of the universe that is simple and very plausible. It differs on several points from the present theory; Everyone will be able to choose the explanations they prefer.
Since humans look at the firmament, they wonder what this universe is about. Theories are always refined with new discoveries. They will continue to be more precise.
Let’s see how the science of 2000 years and older sees the universe.
All agree that the solid matter is made of small units called atoms.
Some devices can even show so much detail that we see spheres that make up the surface of a metal. Here, IBM deposited atoms on a metal to write IBM.
In 2009, another IBM team was able tophotograph a molecule of nanographene; We see how the atoms in the molecule are arranged. You can see these photos on the internet.
Here is the surface of the graphite with a tunnelling microscope. A fine tip feels the electric field of each electron because it is very close to the surface.
It seems therefore correct to say that matter is made of atoms. How are atoms made then? By examining their properties, we arrive at certain models of the structure of the atom.
Here are two different models that can be found on the Internet:
Before examining the atoms, it is good to see the physical properties in general.
Some laboratories use high-frequency light to transform light into electrons, positrons, protons and antiprotons. The electron which unites with the proton makes a hydrogen atom. The electrons that join the positrons make light. There is therefore a direct relationship between atom and light. To understand the atoms, we must first know what light is.
To understand light, one must see what is called an electric field.
THE STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD: (when the object with an excess of electrons is stable)
The concept of field seems to have been spread by Maxwell with his 4 equations. The concept was useful for its mathematical equations. It seems that his concept of field is simply this: when an object has an excess of electric charge (like the comb passed through the hair), an object sensitive to this charge can feels this surplus at distance. The sensitive object can be an electroscope or a small piece of paper.
This sensitive object can be anywhere in the vicinity of the loaded comb. All these places where the object feels this charge are called the electric field. This field is supposed to exist everywhere in the universe when an object has an electrical overload. According to the definition of the field, it exists instantaneously everywhere. This would mean that it does not spread everywhere at a certain speed but exists everywhere, instantaneously. We already see that this concept is limited because it is not possible that an electric field is instantly everywhere in the universe when one makes an electron.
Can we verify the limits of this concept in the laboratory? Yes and easily. But what we find is a little different from Maxwell’s concept. One realizes then that the comb with an excess of electrical charge can be felt by a sensitive object but in addition, one can block this. An electroscope is used as a probe to determine whether an object has an overload of electrons. A plastic comb rubbed into the hair can capture hundreds of electrons as the electrons in the hair are pushed much more towards the atoms of the comb; some electrons of the hair jump and go on the comb.
THE ELECTROSCOPE: Here is a simple electroscope.
Two thin sheets of aluminum are suspended very close to one another. A wire leads to a metal sphere above. If we approach a plastic rod with an excess of electrons, the two leaves separate a little as on the first drawing.
If we approach a charged white rod, the 2 sheets spread apart.
If the loaded white rod is approached even more but without touching the sphere, the leaves move further away. How do you explain that?
The surplus of electrons in the white rod repels the electrons of the sphere and the latter descend into the aluminum sheets. The two leaves then separate. The more electrons are pushed back into the leaves, the more they separate. We can see that the aluminum leaves move away as if something repelled them from each other. This clearly demonstrates that electrons can repel other electrons. There is a problem here. The white rod does not touch the spheres and the electrons of the rod can repel at a distance those of the spheres. How?
One can verify that for electrons to jump through the air, one needs a big thrust measured in volts. About one hundred volts can blow up electrons over a distance smaller than a millimetre in the air. For our experience, the distance can be easily one meter and one can still observe an effect. The rod does not have millions of volts to blow the electrons towards the sphere. There is therefore something moving between the rod and the sphere, but it is not electrons that travel. Maxwell used the word electric field to explain this.
If something starts from the rod and goes towards the sphere, they can be blocked with a wooden ruler or a sheet of paper.
Yes it’s possible.
A wooden ruler is used because it is neutral, without surplus electron and does not conduct electricity.
As soon as a rule is moved between the charged rod and the sphere, the leaves of the electroscope approach as if the effect had diminished.
The second image is a more sensitive electroscope. It is more sensitive and demonstrates it even better. A neutral wooden rod (not loaded with excess electrons) blocks something between the loaded rod and the sphere. It seems that it travels in a straight line. If the ruler is moved aside, the electroscope still feels the presence of a charge of electrons.
What does that show then? Since we can not block something that does not move, it shows that there is something starting from the comb and going to the probe. If according to Maxwell there was an electric field everywhere, the ruler could not block that.
What starts from the comb then? Maybe electrons themselves because there was a surplus. But for the electrons to jump through the air, they must receive a fairly strong thrust. One can verify by approaching the comb close to the ear. We hear small clicks and we receive small electric shocks. It can be seen that the distance between the comb and the ear is nearly one millimeter. The comb does not have thousands of volts and the effect can be felt at 3 meters if the air is dry. So it is not electrons that start from the comb to go to the probe. Then what?
There is not yet an official name for this, but the properties associated with the many invented names do not completely correspond to what the experience clearly demonstrates.
An object with an excess of electrons sends something in all directions and a simple cardboard can block this. Maurizio Michelini calls this micro quanta in his article: A Flux of Micro Quanta Explains Relativistic Mechanics and Gravitational Interaction.
Another name would be the last sub-quanta to indicate that it is the smallest parts that exist without being made of something even smaller.
In the appendix, we show how to construct a probe very sensitive to electrons; It can detect a surplus on a comb at a distance of three meters in dry weather.
The internal circuit causes the green LED to light up if an object with an excess of electrons is close enough. If the object has a lack of electrons, the red LED lights up.
Here is an experiment that demonstrates that objects with an excess of electrons send something around.
A rod of ebonite is rubbed on the fur. It quickly acquires thousands of electrons taken from the fur.
The sensor will feel it and the green LED will light even if it is at a distance of 3 meters.
The rod is moved to the probe: the green LED stays on.
The rod is removed from the probe: the green LED goes out and the red LED lights up.
Normally, the red LED lights up in the presence of objects that have lost electrons like fur.
Why does the red del lights up when the ebonite rod moves away because it still has an excess of electrons?
The most plausible answer is that all the objects in the room where this experiment is made have either a surplus of electrons or a lack or are neutral with as many electrons as protons.
When the ebonite rod did not move in relation to the probe, the emission flow from the rod was constant and the delta remained unchanged.
When the rod moves away from the probe, the intensity of this flow diminishes.
If an object has a lack of electrons, the flow between the object and the probe is smaller than the normal average and the red LED lights up.
Similarly, when the ebonite rod moves away, the emission stream is now smaller and the probe perceives this as a lack of electrons and the red LED lights up.
The opposite happens if an object is used with a lack of electrons. At rest, the red LED lights up. If the object moves away from the probe, the green LED lights up as if there is an excess of electrons and the red goes out.
Conclusion: These facts demonstrate that an object that has an excess of electrons sends something in all directions, in a straight line. The further one moves away from the object, the more it diminishes. It seems that if one triple the distance, the intensity decreases nine times. The intensity seems to follow the following rule:
Intensity 2 = Intensity 1 / (distance squared)
What is the relationship between light and what is sent by an object with an excess of electrons? Let’s see another experiment with the probe that detects an excess of electrons on an object.
An ebonite rod with an excess of electrons is moved and the probe lights up a green LED. The frequency of motion of the loaded rod is the same as the frequency seen on the probe.
If the frequency of the movement changes, the frequency of the probe also changes.
The probe can be activated by making a spark between two conductive wires. An electronic circuit can vary the frequency of sparks.
If the frequency is in the thousand times per second, it is said that what is sent is a radio signal in kilohertz. At higher frequency, we have the megahertz used for radio fm and tv. Even higher frequency, we have the radar wave used in microwave ovens. If the frequency is around exponent 14, there is visible light.
So if you could move the rod at a frequency of 5×1014 hertz, you would see the rod yellow.
Really the color of the visible light depends on the frequency.
Light is simply a very rapid variation in the intensity of emissions from objects having an electrical charge. For visible light, this object is always the electrons excited in the atoms of the object.
It is therefore important to understand that objects emit in all directions.
If the intensity of these emissions vary and the frequency remains fixed, this is called radio waves or light. At very high frequency, they are called x-rays or gamma rays.
Here is a drawing which allows to understand the variation of emission intensity as the ebonite rod moves back and forth from left to right. Each pixel represents what is sent as if you could take a picture of a snapshot. The white circles indicate the two positions of the rod coming and going.
This drawing represents the light sent by excited atoms that go to the left.
Truly it would be necessary to do the drawing in 3 dimensions
A strange fact: if the electrons send something around, why then is there no electric field around all the objects because all the objects have electrons?
When an object is neutral, with about the same number of electrons as protons, one does not feel an electric field if one moves away from the neutral object. It seems, therefore, that at a certain distance the electric field of the electrons and protons cancel each other.
However, if a sensitive probe is used in a room, it sometimes indicates an excess of electrons and sometimes a lack. Overall, the room is neutral but in some places the electric field is somewhat larger than in other places.
Let us see some diagrams used to demonstrate the electric field according to Maxwell.
If we have an excess of electrons, we use the name given by Faraday by saying that the object has a negative charge. He believed that the ebonite rod he rubbed on the fur lost electricity, so he put a (-) sign on the ebonite. Later, we realized that the ebonite had gained electrons but we continued to put a less sign when there are more electrons and a more sign when there is less electron. A historical error of Faraday!
Really, the arrows only indicate the path taken by a small object with a lack of electron if placed there. So it moves away from a positive charge and approaches an object with an excess of electrons. The closer the lines are, the greater the force that moves the object. Those lines are representations only and do not exist.
In the following drawing, the lines again indicate the path taken by a small object with a lack of electron. The small object would follow this path by moving away from the + charge and going towards the negative charge.
The biggest problem with these drawings is that there seems to be something starting from the object (+) and curving towards the object (-). This is false. What leaves the object goes in a straight line and it seems to go at the speed of light. Curved lines are paths that an object would follow only. Moreover, nothing assures us that this starts from the object + or -. It will take other experiments to determine which one really sends something.
What is sent goes in all directions and intensity decreases with distance, as shown in the drawing on the left. A charged object that moves will necessarily have a higher emission density level ahead of it (right drawing). The small gray pixels indicate the intensity of what is emitted and the arrows, in which direction.
If the loaded object continuously sends something in all directions, at some point it will be empty and will not be able to send anything. Yet it still keeps sending everywhere. How is this possible?
Let’s look at what’s going on around us. Every object made of atoms possess billions of electrons that emit everywhere. If we could see these, we would see that there are some that go in all directions as indicated in the drawing. from the left.
The second drawing shows a loaded object that emits in all directions radially, that is, it seems to start from the center of the object. The object receives radiation from everywhere, in all directions, but seems to emit it radially outwards. Here, we put the arrows in red to show the difference in orientation. So the charged object can emit continuously because it receives from everywhere the same thing it emits. Some say it receives and emits photons. The description and properties of the photons is not quite that and we will come back to it later.
LIGHT OR MATTER PRODUCTION
If one concentrates high-frequency light and makes it pass through a thin sheet of gold or lead, the heavy atoms reorganize this light and make system called electron and positron (a positive electron). We say that we have changed the light in matter. Really we organized light into a system named the electron.
Hence comes Einstein’s formula
Energy = mass x (speed of light) squared
Or even better because Energy = frequency x constant h
where h = (6.63 x 10-34 J s)
Then hf = mc2
Thus light becomes matter or system called electron to be more precise.
The positron does not remain as a system for a very long time because as soon as it encounters an electron, it comes closer and becomes light.
It seems correct to say that solid matter and light are made of the same thing but organized otherwise. Similarly, what is sent by all objects is also made of the same thing and it makes sense because it depends on how the organization is made:
stable system = atom,
system with a certain frequency = light,
without frequency = what is sent by the ebonite rod (usually called electric field)
And is gravity contained in that?
Perhaps, we shall see later.
Gravity is present everywhere and is still the part of physics that is the most controversial. Why? The theories of gravity can not be united to other theories.
The main reason is perhaps that gravity is so different that you have to look at it in a new way.
For over 50 years, we tried several experiments to discover the nature of gravity. An experiment gave results so surprising that it had to be tested for nine months to try to find out if there was any error in the results obtained. We therefore begin our discovery of the universe with a description of the facts and this will lead us to a new way of looking at the universe.
Here is a summary of the results of my research.
The official report is in English, published by Physics Essays, December 2011. A copyright applies. The current text does not duplicate the content of the official report.
I have made many experiments on gravity without results. After reading what Podkletnov did in Finland with a wheel turning quickly, I tried to block gravity with a wheel but I did not observe anything. The idea came that if the wheel turns fast and blocks gravity, perhaps light that goes very fast could also block it.
I tried to bounce a laser beam between two mirrors and measure whether the gravity of a mass of 200 g changed once placed above the light. I have not found anything.
Here is a 3d model of the device
Instead of bouncing the light, I used a blade-shaped laser beam rather than a dot. Thus one can send the laminar light very close to a mass.
The apparatus is simply a wooden rod suspended by 3 thin copper wires attached to the middle of the wooden rod. A small mirror is glued to the middle. A mass is placed at each end of the rod. A fixed mass is on the table, close to the moving mass. A laser sends a laminar beam of light between the fixed mass and the moving mass. A screen blocks the light so that it does not affect the second mass at the other end. A small laser beam is reflected by the mirror and arrives on a ruler. We note the position of the small red dot on the ruler. We can then make a graph to see how the moving mass moves. The entire unit must be placed in a container to avoid drafts.
At first, I directed the beam of light between the moving mass and the fixed mass.
Reasoning: If the fixed mass sends gravity to the moving mass, the light ray may block some of this gravity and the moving mass will move slightly away.
Observation: When the light passes between the two masses, the moving mass approaches the fixed mass.
This is contrary to what theories predict.
As the mass approaches rather than recedes, it shows that the fixed mass gives no gravity to the moving mass, or that the light increases the gravity. Nothing in science speaks of this. It would seem strange that light increases gravity because gravity seems to depend only on the quantity of mass, according to Newton’s formula. There remains a mystery to discover.
At first I used a small laser of less than 5 milliwatt. The distance between the masses must be close enough to detect a difference when the light is turned on. If the masses are too close, the moving mass goes towards the fixed mass, touches, bounces and finally sticks to the fixed mass. Unable to send light between the two …
The torsion pendulum is very sensitive; It can take a day to stabilize. Each time you adjust the distance between the masses for a better result, it takes hours before sending the light because everything moves for a long time.
I needed a more powerful laser but my personal budget had already exceeded $ 500 and my wife did not think it was a good idea to spend $ 10,000 for a 1.5 watt laser without knowing if it would work.
The management of Collège Boréal agrees to buy the 1.5 watt laser by reserving the right to publicly promotion if I discover the gravitational effect. Thank you and it was a good choice.
I made more than 1000 hours of observations, sometimes changing the device a little to improve the results. It is also necessary to check all the other things that could affect the movement of the moving mass. Here is a list:
- A) If a mass becomes charged with a few electrons, the static force is so much greater than the force of gravity that it could move the mass. Maybe the laser beam acts on the air molecules and makes them charged with static electricity. This had to be checked but no load was detected in the air; articles on the Internet confirm that the red light of the laser does not have enough energy to ionize the molecules of air.
- B) Maybe the laser beam heats the air and the movement of air close to the masses would be enough to move it. To check if the air is heated, a sensor sensitive at 0.5 degrees Celsius is placed directly near the mass above the laser beam. The temperature does not change. If it changes a little, it is not enough to heat the air molecules appreciably. In addition the observed effect begins immediately when the light passes between the masses and the effect stops when the light is removed. If there were drafts, it would not be instantaneous.
A second attempt to see the air currents: place a small device made of a lot of thin silk thread immediately behind the masses. If the air moves, the threads will move as well. The light thread do not move because the air does not move.
The whole device is placed behind a transparent plate in a closed place. If someone walks or moves, the air movement does not spread to the other side where the device is.
The 1.5 watt laser used is cooled by a current of air. For this, the laser is on one side of the transparent plate and the device on the other side.
One of the reviewers of the document suggests placing a screen between the mass and the laser beam so that the mass does not see the laser light in case the light causes a slight pressure drop on the surface of the mass. The experiment is made and the mass moves anyway when one sends the beam of light.
(C) The laser used has a lot of electronic parts. Maybe all these pieces send an electromagnetic field to the moving mass and that would be enough to move the mass.
To verify this, a thin silver aluminum ribbon is placed at the output of the laser beam to deflect the light 90 degrees so that it does not go between the masses. The laser is started and the movement of the moving mass is observed. When everything is stable, the reflective tape is removed and the light goes between the masses. The moving mass begins to change immediately. The effect therefore does not originate from the electromagnetic field of the laser.
Another way to check is to replace the metal masses with masses that are not affected by electromagnetic waves. Place a large rock crystal (apatite) and a piece of rock called hematite on the pendulum. The effect is the same as with the bronze masses.
- D) The earth rotates. Is the movement of the earth enough to move the moving mass. The effect of the movement of the earth named Coriolis acts on the movements of air. To verify this, the pendulum is placed in different directions and locations. The pendulum is brought to the Collège Boréal in a warehouse near a wall leaning against the rock. The same effect is still observed.
Here is an example of the result obtained on March 2009 with the mobile mass and the fixed mass.
Explanation of chart:
The horizontal axis indicates the time in minutes.
The broken line indicates the position of the moving mass during this time.
The pink line indicates when the light passed between the 2 masses
The vertical axis indicates the distance in cm.
At first, without light between the masses, the moving mass comes and goes. One puts the light, it approaches the fixed mass quickly.
Conclusion: The force of gravitational attraction seems to be greater in the presence of light. This is not foreseen by any current theory.
After all these checks, we must accept that light can change what we call the gravity between two objects.
In March 2010, I stopped experimenting because the result was always the same. An explanation of the phenomenon must be found. I did not know any physical theory that could explain it. The idea that gravity was perhaps not something sent by one mass to the other mass came to me. I search the Internet and realize that others had thought about it but it was not taught in physics. Fabio and Lesage had mentioned it at Newton but Newton did not want to accept these theories.
In summary, his theory says that we bathe in an atmosphere of small parts that travel very fast; an example would be the air that surrounds us even if we do not see it. These small parts push the objects in one direction or the other. Currently, you are pushed left on one side and right on the other side. As the two thrusts are equal, you go neither left nor right. If you could block part of what pushes you to the left, then the right thrust would be stronger and you would be pushed to the right. This happens when there is a lot of wind. The invisible air pushes you further on a side where the wind comes from. You feel a thrust by the wind. A good example is the air that pushes the aircraft wing upward has more force than the air that pushes the wing down; so the plane is pushed up.
The air really pushes the objects and this is called the Brownian movement in science. If a ray of sunlight lights up in a dark room, we see the dust in the air going from one side to the other because the thrust of the molecules of air is never equal on either side of the dust.
I realized that if this theory were true, it could be verified by using the torsional pendulum. Nobody to that date had been able to verify the theory and in the years 1920 ++, we had stopped talking about it. In recent years, some theorists have tried to revive it.
It is said that the space around us contains many non-visible parts like the neutrinos that pass through millions every second through us. In addition, there are particles emitted by the stars and the sun that bombard us. There are also radio waves, visible light, ultraviolet light and sometimes X-rays coming from space. There may be other things we have not yet discovered.
If light could act on what comes from space, it could change the thrust on objects. This would also mean that what makes light would be of the same nature as that which drives objects towards each other, as what drives the earth to turn round the sun; this was called gravity.
To verify this theory, it is necessary to place a torsion pendulum alone, without fixed mass nearby. Once it is stabilized, a beam of light is sent close to the left and one observes whether the mass moves in one direction or the other. We then place the light on the other side to check if there really is a change in the movement of the mass. The mobile mass seems to be pushed in the direction of the beam of light.
It sounds easy in theory but it takes patience to verify it. After hundreds of hours, I have enough results that show that light can affect the moving mass.
In the following drawing, it is seen that the light passes to the left of the moving mass. A screen stops the light so that it has no effect on the 2nd mass at the other end.
It seems that the pendulum oriented east-west is pushed on one side and the other by everything that comes from space. When the light is placed to the south of the mass, it is pushed to the south as if the thrust coming from the north is greater than the thrust coming from the south. What blocked some of the force coming from the south? It is light.
If you change the beam of light and put it on the north side of the mass, it should now go north if the light can block what comes from the north. Yes, that happens.
The theory is verified by an experiment that all physics laboratories can check with a powerful enough laser.
The following graph clearly shows that the mass was pushed where the force of gravity was less on the side of the light.
Excel software is used to record the time and position of the light spot. A graph shows whether the moving mass changes position. It must be remembered that the moving mass never stops moving from one side to the other. This movement at rest is only a few millimeters but can be seen very well with the luminous point of the small laser.
Here is what is recorded during a session. The line indicates the movement of the pendulum.
The moving mass is pushed towards the region where the light passes.
When a light beam is sent near the moving mass without having a fixed mass nearby, the moving mass is pushed towards the light because the horizontal gravitational thrust is smaller on the light side. It is proof that the light blocks the gravitational thrust. As soon as the light is switched off, the mass returns to its rest position. It can be seen in the graph of April 16, 2012. The red line at the top indicates when the red laser light was close to the moving mass. Before turning on the light, the mass moved away slowly towards the south (down on the drawing). The light is placed north of the mass; It immediately heads north and stabilizes around 630 mm. The light is turned off and the mass returns towards the south.
Possible explanation based on actual results. The green vector indicates the force coming from the north (right on this drawing) and the black vector indicates the force coming from the south. The two are equal. When the light (red arrow) passes from the north side, it blocks some of the force coming from the north. The result is indicated at the bottom with the blue vector. The mass is pushed to the north.
Current theories say that the large mass is the cause of the attraction of the small mass. Newton did not make that assumption but most people believe that. It is as if the big mass was actually sending the gravity that attracts the small mass. If the light can block a part of what is sent, then the attraction would be smaller and the small mass should move away a bit. The opposite happens, although nothing in current theories predicted.
We have to accept the evidence and try to understand what is happening. If the large mass does not send gravity to the moving mass of 200 g, what moves it. An external force would have to push it. The small mass moves towards the large mass placed to the north. If the small mass goes north, so a force pushes it from the south. When the laser beam is placed between the two masses, it passes to the north of the mass of 200 g. If the laser beam stops part of the thrust coming from the north, the small mass will go north because the south force would now be larger than the force from the north. This would be a possible explanation and the only one that makes sense.
A second series of experiments
A second series of experiments confirms the first discoveries. We have built a box with polished aluminum sheets to hold light in order to place objects above or below the box and measure the gravity changes of the object.
The box measures approximately 1.2 m by 1.2 m and 0.2 m high. Nine fluorescent bulbs send 63000 lumen in the bottom partition of the box. Mirrors at the each end return the light to the partition above and so on. The light from the top partition is returned to the bottom partition. The interior design makes this clearer.
We tested the mass positioned under the box and over the box.
With the fluorescent bulbs which give about 63000 lumen, one can see a change of gravity significant enough to make measurements.
The most surprising thing is that an object placed above the box gains weight even if its mass does not change. Checks are made to ensure that there is no static electric field effect or air current caused by a change in temperature. Numerous graphs show that the more intense the light, the more the change of gravity increases. This change therefore depends on the light.
Results with the mass under the box
The red line indicates when the bulbs were lit.
The red line indicates when the bulbs were lit and the mass over the box
There may be another explanation. It must explain how it can sometimes increase the gravity and sometimes decrease it depending on where the mass is placed, above or below the box. A change of temperature can not do two opposite actions like that.
We must accept the evidence again. Light can block what causes gravity. In addition, this means that gravity is a push and not an attraction as was believed.
When the large mass attracted the mass of 200 g, in reality the 500 g did not attract the 200 g. It blocked some of the gravitational thrust coming from the north, as the light did. This means that all objects made of atoms block somewhat the gravitational thrust.
On Earth, the ground blocks much, so that the objects on the ground are pushed towards the ground because the thrust coming from the top is greater than the thrust coming from the bottom. The force of gravity is the ‘response’ or the result when two opposing and unequal forces are added together. The greatest force wins and this is called gravity.
If gravity is a force that pushes objects, what causes this force?
We now know that what seems the void between the stars or the sun and we is not empty. Space is filled with neutrinos that pass through us, billions per second. In addition there are all the radio waves that travel at the speed of light because these waves are a light with a frequency lower than the visible light. X-rays and gamma rays are everywhere. Particles emitted by stars move all over the universe. Some theories say there are virtual particles everywhere. Others say that there is a substance called black matter because it is not visible. Would the thrust of all this be the source of the thrusts called gravitational? Perhaps. There may still be something so small that it can not be detected. Some name this string with strange properties.
Perhaps there are still even smaller things, so small that they have no dimensions, are not made of anything else, and always travel at the speed of light. It would be the last little things that exist. No smaller amount. These would be the last sub-quanta to use physics terms.
The abbreviation will then be LSQ for the last sub-quanta. In short, LSQs. With their 4 basic properties, they would be what makes up matter, the electric fields, the different frequencies of light, our universe.
It is possible that the bombardment of the LSQs is one of the causes of the gravity. In the experiment described before, if the ray of light is also made of LSQ advancing in a straight line, they interfere with those coming from the north and since the quantity coming from the north decreases, those coming from the south push the mass a little more than those coming from the north. This explanation is plausible and seems to be the only one valid to date.
If gravity is a push from the LSQs going at the speed of light from all sides, where do they come from?
The known universe is perhaps not the real limit of the universe. For example, if the current universe was as big as an apple in the middle of a gymnasium (see drawing) and the whole gymnasium contained other galaxies and stars, in a gradual continuation from all sides of what we see, then the source of these LSQs that flow on our universe would come from outside the ‘apple’ and also from the ‘apple’ itself. The amount that enters our universe seems a little smaller than what comes out because the universe grows a little bit.
When a LSQ enters ‘collision’ with another, it only changes each direction as two billiard balls in a perfect collision. So, before and after, from the outside, it is as if they had passed one through the other. (Left drawing)
However, if two meet in opposite directions, they can bounce back in new directions. (The drawing on the right is not to scale, it serves to demonstrate how 3 or more then the direction taken by each may be different from the direction of origin and there is still conservation of the momentum.) If this happens often or the density is very high, some eddies form and some remain stable. The physics laws of the systems are preserved.
Since LSQs have neither mass nor frequency, only the being and a velocity of 3×108 m / s, they have no energy in the known sense in physics. Energy is only a concept that applies to interacting systems; Really, energy is summed up either with E = mc2 or E = hf or E = QV. Really one should remove the E and say simply that in the interactions, one can have this: mc2 = hf = QV. The other formulas are contained in these. They have no charge because charge is a property of a system just like the mass.
1. Light can interact with what causes gravity.
The facts do not lie. This does not, however, explain how light interacts. We must understand better what light is. As light blocks gravity, what makes up light and what makes gravity must have something in common in their nature. It may be that light and what causes gravity are made of the same parts but arranged in different ways. Future research can help us understand this.
2. The force of gravity is repulsive and not attractive.
As the moving mass is set in motion when the light passes close by, this proves that a force acts on the mass. This force is called gravity. In physics, it is believed that any change in speed is caused by any force. As this is not an attraction, it means that this force is a push. In truth, this simplifies our concept of gravity because it is very difficult to explain distance attraction.
What does that mean?
One has the impression by lifting a heavy rock that the earth attracts the rock downwards. Really, the rock is also pushed on all sides: left, right, forward, backward, above and below. The thrust which came from below crossed the planet Earth and part of this thrust coming from the bottom was blocked by the Earth. So the thrust coming from the bottom is smaller than the thrust coming from the top. The top thrust wins and the rock goes down.
We are pushed towards the ground by the gravity coming from space above because the gravity coming from below was blocked in part by the planet earth. So the atoms of the earth can block some of the gravity. So our atoms in our bodies are pushed by gravity and thus block some of the radiation of gravity. What is not blocked continues through us.
In this drawing. The blue arrow pointing downwards represents the gravity and the arrow under the table represents the thrust given by the table to the object. If the two forces are equal, the object becomes stable on the table.
Possible explanation why light diminishes the gravitational effect.
A look at the fission of a uranium nucleus. Each fission nucleus also produces rays of the order of 1022 hertz. This light is not visible.
If the gravity is emitted by the nucleus and also the light of 1022 hertz, it is possible that some emissions are without frequency. The light would be these emissions with a frequency while the gravity would have no frequency.
What is emitted by the nuclei comes from the nucleus; how is it that the nucleus does not eventually disappear if it continually emits gravity. It is necessary to realize that it emits much but also that it receives much of the space that surrounds it in various forms: light, gravity, neutrino, etc. The total amount given away is likely to be substantially equal to the receiving amount and the nucleus remains the same.
What is emitted goes to the speed of light because light is made of what is emitted and has a frequency while gravity is the same thing but emitted continuously, without frequency.
If light interacts with gravity and blocks or deflects the trajectory of gravity, then light partially blocks gravity from outside as well. If the moving mass approaches the fixed mass, it is because the light has blocked more gravity coming from the outside; having less gravity between the masses, the moving object approaches as if it were attracted by the fixed mass. Actually, it is pushed from the outside towards the fixed mass. Here is a diagram of what happens when you put a ray of light between the masses.
One should not consider electrons and neutrons as small beads of matter but rather as complex SYSTEM comprising a very large number of LSQs.
An interesting calculation can then be made. If the proton is a complex system where the LSQ travel at the speed of light, the round trip frequency in this system can be calculated.
We know that the energy = mass x velocity of light squared and that energy = also the Planck constant times the frequency.
So if one multiplies the frequency of the LSQs in the proton by the Planck constant and divides this by the velocity of the squared light, one should obtain the mass of the proton. This works very well! The value obtained is very close to the accepted measured value. Does this mean that the proton, the neutron and the electron would be complex “clouds” made of LSQ going at the speed of light? Maybe yes.
What is called missing matter in the universe would simply be the LSQs emitted by all matter and going in all directions.
Emission of light:
For atoms to react to light, many layers of light are required to excite the electrons which then give a signal that there is light.
A good example of this: If one looks at a distant luminous point through hair, one can see concentric circles illuminated even if the hair is not placed in a circle. Only the section of a hair that follows the exact curve of the light front will have enough excited electrons so that they can emit light. Atoms that do not receive enough layers of light do not emit light. One often sees the same effect in a windshield in the evening in the countryside watching a remote source of light.
Left drawing to show that it takes a lot of excited atoms at the same time to have an emission of light. The red part of hair illustrates that only a small section of hair with the same curvature as the incoming light is able to emit light because these atoms are excited at the same time and reacts together.
The photo of the center shows how the hair was placed when we took a picture of an intense light through these hair: picture on the right.
Appendix: A detector that is sensitive to static electricity.
Uses a CMOS 4000 chip and makes these welds. When the detector is near an object with excess electron, the green LED lights up. Red lights when it is near an object that has lost electrons. Both light up when the object is neutral.
This circuit was discovered by mistake by a student and it works very well.